četvrtak, 19.05.2011.


1st Describe the first flights.

The first flights unmanageable balloon manned took place in France at the end of the 1783rd vol. The first flight with a balloon filled with hydrogen was made by Jaques Charles, then a balloon flight carried out by hot air, and afterwards Montgolfier brothers fly (a crew of seven people), large hot-air balloon at an altitude of 1000 m. The investigations are flying at the same time dealt with the Professor of Natural Sciences, Zagreb, Josip Domin. On the 1784th published a comprehensive work that deals with the theory of gases. A separate chapter was devoted to balloon (aerostat), and also performed the experiments with balloons. Domin professor teaches physics and science in Trnava, Győr, Pécs and the University of Budapest, where inherits Burgenland Croats John Baptiste Horvat. Dean of the Faculty of Arts in Budapest three years and a short time rector of the University, then returned to Zagreb. See pictures on the Internet for hot-air balloon.
In Zagreb, then acting Distriktus Studiorum Zagrabiensis, which was established by a decree of Empress Maria Theresa 1776th vol.

2nd Describe balloon flights controllable airship.

The first major flight of 27 km was made by French engineer Henri Giffard 1852nd vol. Oblong shaped balloon powered by a steam engine 3ks. In France and England performed more controllable balloon flights, but no major long-term achievement.

3rd Describe flights controllable airships solid construction.

David Schwartz from Zagreb was builded in St. Petersburg 1893./94. airship of duralumin which invented (Schwartz aluminum).
The day before takeoff Schwartz was notified to him by certain circles to be prepare for situation with severe consequences when he immediately destroys the shuttle and with drawings by using a false passport he fled to Zagreb.
Schwartz is supported by the German government and building a new airship 1896./97.
Shortly before the first official flight he died from the consequences of stroke, and the flight operated by a mechanic. After the ship was take off near the 500m of altitude one after another both belt-drive mechanism for the propeller was damaged. The pilot was in a panic, too much hydrogen is emitted and the ship landed with irreparable damage.
Ferdinand von Zeppelin from David's wife buys the draft of air ship construction,
he improved construction and begins with production. Since then, air traffic starts to develop rapidly. Airship interiors are luxuriously decorated with furniture made of mahogany, and called Zeppelins. The largest airship "Hindenburg" (245m) suffered an accident due to ignition of hydrogen and then were put out of use. After the discovery of helium production of airship in the United States again was used for specific purposes, a rapid development of airplain heavier than air, pushed them out of the passenger traffic. Today intends for them important new roles to take on certain tasks of flying in the stratosphere (21 km). Under construction is the first airship the length of 73m on electrical power 2kW, while the power is derived from new generation of solar panels. See pictures on the Internet Zeppelin.

4th Floating zepelini.

Climbing begins when the difference between the forces of buoyancy and gravity in favor of buoyancy, and this is achieved by filling the buoyancy chambers with hydrogen or helium. During booting of air ship comes to changes of pressure and temperature which causes that difference between the forces of buoyancy and gravity gradually decreases, and when they equalize vessel hovering at that height. Longitudinal motion is achieved using engine propeller that are located laterally, and stabilizers for control are set at the end of the airship.

5th Describe the achievements of pioneering flights of aircraft heavier than air.

• Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright fly the aircraft in few occasions from 1903 until 1905. and achieve a range of 39 km.
• Engine of aircraft are on gasoline and increasingly perfected which enabled the French Blériot flew 1909. The English Channel, and American Lindbergh 1927.th Atlantic Ocean.
• The first flight to Zagreb, a pilot Dragutin Novak fly on an aircraft from Slovoljub Penkala 1910th vol.

6th Describe the operation of modern aircraft.

Gas turbine driven by kerosene pushed the gasoline engine from use and today most of the modern aircraft have turbojet or turboprop propulsion.
• Turbojet engines consist of multiple compressor supplying air for combustion and multistage turbine, which drives each stage separately. Among them are chamber for combustion of kerosene. Flue gases after passing through the turbine is discharged in the form of powerful jets, as an reaction occurs force. Aircraft with turbojet engine achieves high speed and can fly at high altitudes.
• Turboprop engines with a compressor and turbine have propeller, which have taken over almost all the energy of flue gases. Propeller pulls air toward the engine, and reaction appears as a force.

7th Describe the buoyancy force in the aircraft.

The buoyancy of the aircraft occurs as a result of air flow around the wing.
• The first component of the buoyancy force is the result of a specific wing shape (aeropro profil). The upper part of the wing is more curved and therefore has a larger surface area. Based on the laws of fluid flow on the upper surface appears lower pressure than the bottom, so this is the cause of buoyancy forces.
• Wing has a front end raised up (angle of attack), and because of air gust to the lower wing surface can lead to the other components of propulsive forces.

8th Describe the push force of helicopters.

Wing propeller of helicopters also have a form of aeropro profil. The upper surfaces are larger than lower, and the result is that pressures is higher than under the propeller above. When a certain number of turns equals the force and gravity, helicopter hovering. Longitudinal motion is realized through the action of the small tail propeller.

9th Specify and describe parts of the aircraft.

• Hull integrates all parts of the aircraft. In front of the aircraft is situated cockpit and room for management and supervision, and in the rear part is the space for passengers and cargo.
• Wings are used to create propulsive forces. They are positioned flaps with which adjusts the slope of the aircraft and changing force.
• On the tail are placed horizontal and vertical stabilizer, and they are moving parts that determine the height and direction of movement of aircraft.
• Drive machines produce the necessary force to move the aircraft, and can be placed on the wings, tail and in front of the fuselage.

10th Describe some development ventures in aviation.
One of the handicaps of aircraft before the ship is relatively small cargo capacity. To mitigate this in Russia and America are developing extremely large aircraft ekranoplani, it is kind a hybrid of the ship and aircraft. If you fly above the sea surface (6 to 15m) for the so-called. Effect of soil have lower fuel consumption and a large range. See on the Internet ekranoplan BE-2500 and 1000 tons ekranoplan Boeing Pelican Ultra 1400tona.

11th See on the Internet planes.

• Travel Airbus A-380
• Travel Boeing 747
• Strategic bomber Northrop Grumman B - 2 Spirit
• Hunter MIG - 35
• Helicopter Boeing CH - 47

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