The negative effects of the problem of overpopulation in Egypt, which indirectly affect the decrease in per capita income and the consequent difficulties in food security, are not hidden from anyone. Despite the positive effects of the population increase, which is concentrated in the labor force and the increase of the manpower, the effects Its negativity overwhelms its positives, which calls for devising radical solutions to benefit from the increase in population in Egypt, as happens in countries with higher population density, which benefit from population density to increase production and resources.
The population increase contributes to a decrease in the standard of living and an increase in unemployment rates in addition to an increase in population density in populated areas.
The increase in population density leads to pressure on services in cities and deterioration of facilities such as water, sewage, electricity, and others, as well as an increase in environmental pollution rates, encroachment of buildings on limited agricultural lands, and the spread of informal settlements.
The average population density of the inhabited area per square kilometer is about 1422 people in Egypt, where 84% of the population lives on 6% of the total area of Egypt.
One of the dimensions of the demographic problem in Egypt is the high percentage of young people, which are considered unproductive, leading to an imbalance between production and consumption in Egypt.
According to the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, the percentage of the population in the age group "less than 15 years" represents more than 34.2% of the total population.
The demographic problem is the imbalance between the population, resources, and services, which is the increase in the population without increasing educational opportunities, health facilities, job opportunities, and the increase in the economic level. The problem appears clearly and is represented by high population growth rates.
Overpopulation should not be viewed as a problem in itself. Rather, it must be viewed in light of the balance between population and resources, especially since there are many countries experiencing an increase in population, but they do not suffer from the problem of balance between population and resources, most notably China.
In addition, the redistribution of the population over the area of the Arab Republic of Egypt, which exceeds one million square meters, contributes to solving the problem in a large proportion.
And we must quickly develop radical and bold solutions to the problem of population increase, especially with the expectations of the continued increase of the population, as according to the Central Agency for Mobilization and Statistics, the population will reach 100 million in 2020 compared to 98.1 million at the beginning of 2019, and 94.8 million in 2017.
The population is expected to reach 118 million in 2030, which calls for the necessity of redistributing the population and covering resources for the expected population increase.
One of the main problems of the imbalance between population and resources is the low average per capita income.
How to deal with the problems arising from the overpopulation
Several recent studies have been conducted on the relationship between industrialization and population characteristics. Where comparison was made between the population in some industrial areas and the population in rural areas and came out of it with results that confirm the relationship between industrialization and the decline in the birth rate and the rate of population increase.
These results focus on the fact that industrialization leads to the transformation of the environment in which people live into an urban environment characterized by a high social, cultural, educational, and health level of the population, and an increase in all service facilities for it, as well as improved means of transportation, transportation, and communications, and electricity and water are available, and job opportunities and growth increase. Economic.
The results also showed the association of the industrial urban environment with postponing the age of marriage for females, and their use of contraceptive methods, which are factors that contribute to increased production and employment.
The results confirmed the link between the industrial urban environment and the family lifestyle, in terms of the high level of consumption and annual income per person, the degree of the wife’s attendance and the degree of her education, and the high level of interest in the education and welfare of children, all of which was reflected in reproductive behavior.
This has contributed to the decrease in the number of children born by the family. However, the most important systems affecting the values and trends in any society are the educational system. The greater the interest of the population in education, especially for girls, the age of marriage is affected, and the trends in reproductive behavior and family planning are necessarily affected by education.
It is necessary to face the problem of population density, as it happened in China, by overcoming the problem with its economic and social implications, and moving in two directions, namely, increasing awareness of family planning and economic development.
And that the comprehensive policy focus on confronting the dimensions related to the problem, which are growth, distribution and characteristics.
The methods of confronting the population problem include increasing production, searching for new resources, giving attention to job opportunities to eradicate poverty, and establishing small projects, especially in informal and overpopulated areas, and it is preferable to take advantage of the idea of micro-loans.
In addition to limiting the increase in the population by issuing legislation, such as raising the age of marriage, and tax exemptions for the number of children, which is exactly what happened in China for a specific period, meaning exempting families with limited income from certain types of fees and taxes, granting them comprehensive health insurance, or obtaining free additional food support.
Incentives can also be provided to villages and cities that achieve discipline in the rates of population increase through services and projects established in them.
An integrated national strategy must be developed aimed at convincing Egyptian families of the culture of the two children only, and the contribution of the private sector in solving the population problem should be restored by opening new projects in uninhabited areas in a way that contributes to redistributing the population and developing plans to attract residents to new areas, where the population is concentrated in the middle of And the southern delta around fertile soil.
Young people must also voluntarily participate in public work to urge the seriousness of the problem and put forward solutions to it, in agreement with civil society organizations.
Population increase means an increase in the number of individuals beyond the carrying capacity of the place in which they live, as a result of an increase in the birth rate over the death rate, or an increase in residents in a particular place with an increase in the depletion of food and natural resources in that place.
Society must be educated about the danger of population density and take solutions to it, most notably the expansion of residence across uninhabited cities, family planning, the exploitation of manpower in small projects, and attention to education as the most important steps of awareness.