nihon no rekishi, japanska povijest

petak, 22.02.2019.

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629-641. g. Vladao 34. car Jomei (593-641).
Bio je otac dva cara, 38.Tenjija i 40.Kenmua (ili Tenmu).








630. g. Prva japanska ambasada za kineske dinastije Tang (618-907).
Car Jomei gradi palaču Asuka Okamoto-no-miya.





636. g. Car Jomei gradi palaču Tanaka-no-miya.





640. g. Car Jomei gradi dvije palače, Umayasaka-no-miya i Kudara-no-miya koja je
bila izvan Asuke(danas je to prefekt ra Nara ili Nara-ken, Koryo-cho).





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642-645. g. Vladala 35. carica Kogyoku .
Sestra 36. cara Kotokua. Kogyoku je živjela, 594-661.

642. She ascended the throne as KMgyoku-tennM, and she stepped down in response to
the assassination of Soga no Iruka (see, Isshi Incident)

vidi, wikipedia





643. g. Carica Kogyoku dala izgraditi palaču Asuka Itabuki no miya.










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645-654. g. Vladao 36. car Kotoku (596-654). Iste godine kada je došao
na vlast uselio u novu carsku palaču Naniwa Nagara Toyosaki-no-miya
(danas Osaka-shi).

645. (Taika 1) Empress Kogyoku abdicates; and her brother receives the succession (senso).
Shortly thereafter, Emperor Kotoku formally accedes to the throne (sokui).

vidi, wikipedia





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645. g. Početak reformi Taika





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Reforme su započele kada je sa vlasti svrgnut klan Soga. Glavni pokretači reforme Taika
ili «velikih promjena» bili su Nakako Oeno Oji (ili Naka-no-Oe (626-672) tj. budući
38. car Tenji (667-672) i Nakatomi no Kamatari (614-669), koji je na samrti dobio ime
Fujiwara, počasni naslov koji je prenio na svog sina Fuhitoa (659-720), koji je imao
mnogo potomaka pa je obitelj Fujiwara postala najbrojnija muška nasljednja loza u
Japanu i dala je najveći broj carskih muževa u idućim stoljećima.

The Taika (Great Change) reform occurs: imperial prince Naka-no-Ôe (the emperor
Tenchi) and Nakatomi Kamatari sieze control of the government from the Soga and
begin a sweeping reorganization.

645 (Taika 1) Kotoku introduces the Taika reform (Taika no kaishin). The ideas and
goals of this systemic reform (ritsuryo) were memorialized in a series of articles which
formally bore the imprimatur of the emperor. KMtoku officially divided Japan into eight
provinces. The Taika reforms also sought to regulate the rank of government officials
who were to be distinguished by 19 sorts of official hats or caps with differing forms and
different colors according to a very strictly-defined hierarchy.

vidi, wikipedia
vidi, Šantić, str.21, 22; Morishima, str., 57-60, 235; Totman, str. 46;





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gore, princ Naka no Oe, budući car Tenji





Od 645. g. uvode se povijesna razdoblja - nengo .
započelo je prvo takvo razdoblje - taika era (period).





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gore, Nakatomi no Kamatari, prvi pripadnik klana Fujiwara





645. (Taika 1) KMtoku decides to abandon Asuka, which had been the capital city up to this time.
Instead, he transferred the capital to Naniwa, which is in the general vicinity of the Bay of Osaka.
In this new location, KMtoku centralized his power without further delay. Kotoku lived in a palace
which had been newly constructed for him on a promontory. The name of this palace was Toyosaki-no-Miya.
The palace was at Nagara, in the general area of Naniwa in Settsu province.

vidi,wikipedia





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gore & dolje, obiteljsko stablo klana Fijuwara i povezanost sa carskom obitelji





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645. g. podignut je Senso-ji budistički hram u tokijskom zaljevu (danas Tokyo, Asakusa),
posvećen božici milosrđa (bodhisattva) Kannon (Avalokitesvara), nakon što su godine 628. dva
ribara, braća Hinokuma Hanamari & Takenari u obližnjoj rijeci Sumida našli statuu božice
K(w)annon. Od 628. do 645. statua je bila u kući lidera njihova sela Hajino Nakamotoa.
Današnje zgrade hrama su iz Edo perioda. Senso-ji pripada Tendai budističkoj školi.





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gore & dolje, Nakamise-dori, ulica sa trgovinama do hrama Senso-ji;





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gore, Šajba & moja malenkost u lipnju 2015. godine u Senso-ji hramu;





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646. (Taika 2, 1st day of the 1st month) KMtoku established a regular calendar
for the court, with major audiences scheduled only on certain days.
The emperor also addressed a number of matters which would affect all parts
of Japan—as for example, creating judicial districts, establishing guard posts
on major roads, arranging for postal relay systems, dividing the country in
governable units with separations following the natural boundaries created by
mountains and rivers, appointing governors for each province, and fixing the
amounts porters might be able to charge. Kotoku named the chiefs in the
districts and the villages; and for the first time, it became possible to register
the number of houses and the numbers of people in each location, the taxes
to be exacted from each area and the varying products from throughout the land.
He also mandated that from every hundred households, one beautiful young
woman should be sent for service in the palace household. He arranged that in
each year, an officer from the central court should be sent to each province to
examine the conduct of the governors and their government. The emperor also
initiated plans for building storehouses of goods and arsenals which would serve
the needs of a national army or militia. The udaijin Sogo Yamada Ishikawa Maro
was specifically charged with the task of planning so that all the faults that could
be attributed to mistakes of government would not happen—or could be mitigated.
This was also a time in which the greater part of the rules of etiquette and customs
of the court were revised or contrived. Naka-no Oe-shinno and the sessho Nakatomi
no Kamatari counseled these and other measures intended to make Japan a better
and stronger country.

vidi, wikipedia;










649. g. Izabrana je vlada sa ministrima vojske, dvora, financija, pravde, policije i prosvjete.

vidi, Šantić, str. 21;





649. (Taika 5,7th day of the third month) The sadaijin Abe no Kurahashi Maro died.

vidi, wikipedia





649. (Taika 5, 3rd month) Sogo-no Kiyouga, the younger brother of the udaijin
Soga Yamada Ishikawa Maro, informed the emperor that his older brother was
involved in a conspiracy against the emperor. On the basis of this information,
Kotoku sent men to the udaijin 's home with plans to put the traitor to death.
Yamada somehow learned about this in advance, and he then decided to kill
himself. Shortly thereafter, after Yamada's innocence had been proven,
the surviving brother, Kiyouga, was punished. For his part in misleading the
emperor and in causing the udaijin to kill himself, Kiyouga was exiled to
Tokachi on the northern island of Hokkaido, which was a largely unpopulated
wilderness at that time.

vidi, wikipedia





649. (Taika 5,20th day of the 4th month) Kose no Toko no O-omi (593-658)
was named sadaijin shortly after his predecessor died.

vidi, wikipedia





649. (Taika 5, 4th month) Otomo Nagatoko no Muraji was made udaijin.

vidi, wikipedia





649. (Taika 5) In this year, the Emperor decreed the establishment of a new
system of government, (the hasshM hyakkan), which was composed of eight
ministries and 100 bureaus.

vidi, wikipedia





650. (Taika 6) The Hakuchi era began in the sixth year of the Taika era.
The daimyo of Nagato province brought a white pheasant to the court as a gift
for the emperor. This white pheasant was then construed as a good omen.
Emperor Kotoku was extraordinarily pleased by this special avian rarity, and he
wanted the entire court to see this white bird for themselves. He commanded a
special audience in which he could formally invite the sadaijin and the udaijin to
join him in admiring the rare bird; and on this occasion, the emperor caused the
nengo to be changed to Hakuchi (meaning "white pheasant").

vidi, wikipedia





650-654. Hakuchi razdoblje

650. (Hakuchi 1) Kotoku commanded that all prisoners were to be granted liberty
throughout the country.

vidi, wikipedia





653. g. Iz Kine je budistički redovnik Dosho (629-700) donio učenje budističke
škole Hosso-shu (sanskrt,Dharmalaksha ili Vijnanamatra,poznata i kao Yogacara
u Indiji, kin. Fa-hsiang, hrv. »škola karakteristične dharme»). Danas u Nari postoje
tri glavna hrama ove škole: Kofuku-ji (iz Kyota premješten u Naru 710.god.),
Yakushi-ji (osnovan 680.god.) i Horyu-ji (osnovan 607.god.), koji zapravo nije u
samoj Nari već blizu nje. Ova škola je slijedila idealističku školu koju je u Kini
osnovao veliki putnik Hsuan-tsang (jap. Genjo, 600-624). Hsuan-Tsang je također
Dosho-u preneo učenje zena koju je ovaj prakticirao u nekim hramovima Hosso
škole u Nari.Hsuan-Tsang (nazivan i San-tsang ili Sen-sang, »tripitaka» ili Tang Sen)
bio je značajan budistički redovnik i hodočasnik svog vremena. Jedan od četiri
velika prevodioca budističkih tekstova sa sanskrta na kineski.
Suosnivač Fa-Hsiang, budističke škole koja je bila kin. forma Yogachara škole.
Hsuan-tsang je hodočastio u Indiju.

vidi, Suzuki, Zen i japanski budizam, str. 83, 96 i 102; Wood, Rječnik zena,
str. 57; Grupa autora, The Rider Encyclopaedia, str.134; »knjiga o zenu ili
povijest zena», sv. 2, str. 140;





654. (Hakuchi 5, 1st month) A great number of rats moved into the province of
Yamato; and this was construed as a sign that the capital should be moved.

vidi, wikipedia





654. (Hakuchi 5) Kotoku died and the throne was vacant, at the age of 59 after a
reign of 10 years—five years during Taika, and five years during Hakuchi.

Emperor KMtoku, in the 10th year of his reign dies at age 59; and his nephew and
heir declines the succession (senso). Shortly thereafter, Empress Saimei formally
accedes to the throne (sokui).

vidi, wikipedia





655-662. razdoblje Saimei

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655-661. g. Vladala 37. carica Saimei (vladala je i kao 35. carica Kogyoku). Godine 655. izgradila dvije nove palače:
Asuka Itabuki-no-miya i Asuka Kawara-no-miyai, te 656. palaču Nochi no
Asuka Okamoto-no-miya.

655. She re-ascended, beginning a new reign as Saimei-tennM.

655. (Saimei 1) or "the 1st year of Saimei's reign (A new period is marked by the
beginning of the reign of Empress Saimei, but the end of the previous nengM in
Hakuchi 6 did not presage the commencement of a new nengM. This dating
system was allowed to lapse during Saimei's reign.

vidi, wikipedia
















658. g. Arima no Miya okrivljen za državni udar(coup d'etat) i smaknut.





659. g. Rođen Fujiwara no Fuhito (umro 720).

vidi, Totman, str. 677;





661. g. U posljednjoj godini svoje vladavine carica Saimei dala
izgraditi palaču Asakura no Tachibana no Hironiwa-no-miya
(danas, Fukuoka-ken).





661. Saimei ruled until her death caused the throne to be vacant again.

661. (Saimei 7, 7th month) Empress Saimei, in the 7th year of her reign designated
her son as her heir; and modern scholars construe this as meaning that this son
would have received the succession (senso) after her death or abdication. Shortly
after she did die at age 68, Emperor Tenji could be said to have acceded to the
throne (sokui).

vidi, wikipedia





662-667. g. Nitko nije vršio funkciju carske dužnosti.
Poslje Taika reformi ni jedan gospodar,niti shogun sa (izuzetkom nadbiskupa
Dokyoa) nikada nije pokušao da postane car. Bila je to prilično uspješna reforma
koja je osigurala poziciju cara.Tako je jedna ozbiljna pogreška samog Naka no
Oea uzrokovala bespoštednu borbu za carsko prijestolje i to unutar same carske
obitelji.Naka,koji je bio krunski princ i u vrijeme 36. cara Kotokua (vladao,
645-654) i 37. carice Saimei, poželio je da svoj položaj zadrži i poslje smrti carice;
za to je carsko prijestolje ostalo upražnjeno punih šest i pol godina.

vidi, Morishima, str. 60





667. g. Emperor Tenchi establishes his court at Otsu (Ômi province).





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667-671. g. Početak perioda Tempyo. Vladao 38. car Tenji
(626-671). Prije krunidbe bio je poznat kao princ Naka no Oe. Krunski princ
bio je 23 god. Od njegove četvero djece troje su bili carevi: 39. car Kobun,
41. carica Jito i 43. carica Kenmei. Jedino Shiki nije bio car. Car Tenji uselio je u
novu palaču Omi Otsu-no-miya (danas, Shiga-ken, Otsu-shi), koja je postala
sjedište cara iz kojeg je vladao.

Supruga caru je bila Yamato Hime no Lkimi, pjesnikinja čije se pjesme nalaze
u Manyoshu antologiji. Nadživjela je supruga.





668-749. g. Živio je Gyogi Bosatsu, učitelj Vijnana-matra škole Mahayana
Buddhina Puta. Sudjelovao je i poticao izgradnju mostova,otvaranjem puteva i
toplih vrela,osnivao je luke za pomorce,kopao bunare i kanale, pripremao
zemljišta za groblja,podizao hramove u kojima su stajale budističke statue
koje je sam izrezbario,...Sjećanje na njega još uvijek živi čak i među ljudima u
udaljenijm dijelovima zemlje. Sudjelovao je i u izgradnji velikog budističkog hrama
Todai-ji u Nari, oko 745. g.

vidi, Suzuki, Zen i japanski budizam, str.103,104; Totman, str.75





669. g. Umro je Fujiwara no Kamatari (r. 614). Ustanovljen je Kofuku-ji.

The Kofukuji is founded.





671. g. Na samrtničkoj postelji Tenji tenno za krunskog princa imenovao je svog mlađeg
brata princa Oamu (budućeg 40. cara Tenmua ili Kenmua) i u svojoj posljednjoj želji
naglasio da želi da ga nasljedi njegov sin, princ Otomo. U to vrijeme nije bilo uobičajeno
da kruna sa oca prijelazi na sina, nego ju je nasljeđivao netko od carevih rođaka, u prvom
redu careva braća. Princ Oama se ipak suglasio sa ovom odlukom i prepustio carsko
prijestolje svom nećaku princu Otomu, ali će poslije smrti cara Tenjija dati ubiti princa
Otoma i na carsko prije – stolje stupiti kao 40.car Tenmu.

vidi, Morishima, str. 60





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671-672.g. ; Vladao 39.car Kobun (Otomo no Oji, 648-672).
Tek 1900. je uvršten u službeno stablo carske obitelji, jer je 40.car Tenmu
pokušao izostaviti kratku vladavinu svog nećaka.Tenji i Tenmu su bili braća
od oca Jomeija,34.cara.

vidi, Totman, str. 57





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672. g. Nemiri Jinshin (Jinshin no ran) kojima je Tenmu srušio kratkotrajnu
vlast cara Kobuna.Nakon nemira započelo je razdoblje velike političke
konsolidacije i reforme koje je stvorilo sustav carske vlasti ritsuryo i
ritsuryo seido tj.»sustav civilnih i kaznenih zakona».Ove nemire povjesničari
smatraju jednim od najvažnijih događaja u japanskoj povijesti.

A succession dispute follows the death of the Emperor Tenchi. The Nihongi
(Chronicles of Japan) mention the use of mounted archers, a possible early
model for the future samurai. Prince Oama (Temmu) defeats his brother
Prince Otomo for the throne. Emperor Temmu moves the Imperial capital
from Otsu back to the Asuka region (Yamato).

vidi, Totman, str. 44, 46, 51-52, 57 i 60;





Period Hakuho, 672-686





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672-686. g. Vladao 40.car Tenmu (Kenmu, 622 (ili 631)-686).
Iste god kada je došao na vlast dao je izgraditi i preurediti tri palače: Shima-no-miya,
Asuka Okamoto-no-miya i Asuka Kiyomihara-no-miya. Nakon god. 672. ustanovljen je
ritsuryo seido ili « sustav kaznenih i građanskih zakona». Ovim složenim, nasljednim
aristokratskim sustavom upravljalo se iz velike palače u sjajnoj prijestolnici, a bio je
povezan sa proizvođačkim stanovništvom u unutrašnjosti preko činovnika koji su
radili u glavnom gradu ili su bili poslani u središta pokrajina da ubiru poreze i održavaju
mir. Car Tenmu je zahtijevao da se na dvoru poštuju budistički obredi, te je zabranio lov,
ribolov i jedenje mesa. Gradio je hramove i naredio je redovnicima da nastave sveto djelo
prepisivanja Tripitake, goleme zbirke budističkih tekstova.

vidi, Totman, str. 51. Također za vladavinu Tenmu vidi u Totman, str. 52,64.

vidi, za period Hakuho, wikipedia (eng)





680. g. Car Tenmu dao rekonstruirati Yakushi-ji.

vidi, Grupa atora, Japanese History, str. 27





681. g. Car Tenmu pokrenuo pisanje nove kompilacije pravnih zakona.





684. g. Pokrenute reforme i uvođenje sustava «yakusa no kabane».

vidi, Grupa autora, Japanese History, str. 31





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684-729. g. živio je princ Nagaya, sin princ Takechija (unuk cara Tenmua).

vidi, princ Nagaya





685. g. Car je tražio da svaka kuća mora imati budističko svetište sa Buddhinom
slikom i budističkim zapisima. Ondje se mora moliti i donositi hranu kao žrtvu
zahvalnicu.

vidi, Totman, str. 64.





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gore, car Tenmu i buduća carica Jito





686. g. Ootu no Miko je smaknut. Umro je 40.car Tenmu.

Emperor Temmu dies.





689.g. ; Donesen tkzv. Asuka Kiyomihara kod.

vidi, Grupa autora, Japanese History, str. 31





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690-697. g. Vladala 41. carica Jito , udovica 40.cara Tenmua i
kći 38. cara Tenjija. Jedan od njenih najvećih uspjeha je bio taj što je okončala nasilje unutar carske obitelji te je tako zadržala razmjerno stabilnu političku vlast. Sa svojim stricem i mužem
40.carem Tenmuom imala je sina Kusakabea kojeg su oženili sa mlađom sestrom carice Jito, Genmei (ili Genmyo, živjela,661-721), 43.jap.carica (vladala, 707-715). Uskoro su dobili kćer
Gensho (44. carica, živjela, 680-748., vladala, 715-724) i sina Monmua (42.car, živio, 683-707., vladao, 697-707). U želji da izbjegne sudbinu Tenjijeva sina, Kusakabe ipak nije naslijedio
prijestolje nakon smrti cara Tenmua 686. godine te umire tri godine poslije, a da nije bio imenovan nasljednikom. Kako njegova smrt ne bi potaknula borbu za prijestolje, Jito je stupila na
prijestolje, kao «božanska vladarica» ili tenno. Nakon nekoliko godina, 697., kad je umro mogući suparnik mladog Monmua, princ Kusakabe, abdicirala je u korist svog unuka, čuvajući ga
sve do svoje smrti, 702.godine.

vidi, Totman, str.52-53 i 681 (za caricu Jito).





694-710. g. Prijestolnica premještena u Fujiwara-kyo. U gradu je bilo 33 hrama,
dok je u cijelom Japanu u to vrijeme bilo 623 hrama od kojih su 545 bili u području
Kinaji i svi su dobivali državnu potporu.

The town of Fujiwara is established and acts as the Imperial capital until 710.

vidi, Totman, str. 64






696. g. Umro je princ Takeshi.





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697-707. Vladao 42.car Mommu (683-707). Stvarnu vlast je imala njegova baka bivša carica Jito (umrla 702.god.),
koja je imala veliku potporu Fujiware no Fuhitoa, čija je kći Miyako po
stala Monmuova supruga i,701., majka njegova sina, kasnije 45. cara Shomua (vladao 724-749).

vidi, Totman, str. 53





700. g. Populacija oko pet miliona ljudi.

During the 700’s the Yamato people gradually expand northward at the expense of the so-called emishi. The need for men willing and able to fight and settle the remote lands they conquered led to the establishment of houses with a military tradition-the roots of the later samurai.

vidi, Totman, str. 32, 77;





701; The Imperial court compiles the Taiho administrative and penal code.






702. g. Na samu novu godinu donesen je Zakonik Taiho (Taiho ryo),
opširna zbirka državnih zakona sastavljena prema kineskom predlošku
radi određivanja osnovnih pravila uređenja ritsuryo. Nakon smrti careve
bake i skrbnice Jito, punoljetna Genmei postala je Monmuova skrbnica.

vidi, Grupa autora, Japanese History, str.31; Totman, str. 53; Morishima, str. 61;





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706. g. The oldest 3 story pagoda in Japan.
UNESCO World Heritage Site, Hokki-ji Temple.

The 24m tall construction dates back to 706 and was formerly known as
Okamoto-dera as it was supposedly built atop the remains of the Okamoto no
Miya palace where Prince Shotoku lectured on the lotus sutra in the year 606.





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707-715. g. Vladala 43. carica Genmei (661-722, Genmyo ili Yenmei),
kćer 38.cara Tenjija. Nakon iznenadne smrti mladog cara (umro u 24 godini),
Genmei je preuzela na sebe naslov tenno, te postala još odlučnijom vladaricom
od carice Jito. Genmei je najpoznatija po prijestolnici koju je dala izgraditi,
Heijo-kyo, današnja Nara. U isto vrijeme je prva u Japanu pokušala uvesti novac u
carsku riznicu te potaknula premjeravanje carstva, zbog čega će (do733.) biti
napisani geografski leksikoni, fudoki, u kojima su obilježeni lokaliteti i njihova
božanstva, opisani mjesni običaji, zabilježena prirodna bogatstva i proizvodi
svojstveni pojedinim pokrajinama.

vidi, Totman, str. 53.





708. The first copper coins are minted.




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