nedjelja, 06.11.2011.



Best Lawyers In American

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Dr. Allison Davis Black Heritage Stamp

Dr. Allison Davis Black Heritage Stamp

(October 14, 1902 – November 21, 1983) was an educator, anthropologist, writer, researcher, and scholar. He was considered one of the most promising black scholars of his generation, and became the first African-American to hold a full faculty position at a major white university when he joined the staff of the University of Chicago in 1942, where he would spend the balance of his academic life. Among his students during his tenure at the University of Chicago were anthropologist St. Clair Drake and sociologist Nathan Hare. Davis, who has been honored with a commemorative postage stamp by the United States Postal Service, is best remembered for his pioneering anthropology research on southern race and class during the 1930s, his research on intelligence quotient in the 1940’s and 50’s, and his support of “compensatory education” that contributed to the intellectual genesis of the federal program Head Start.

Born in 1902 to John Abraham and Gabrielle Davis, William Boyd Allison Davis, who would later be known only as Allison Davis, entered into family well-acquainted with both achievement and activism. He was the oldest of three children with a younger sister, Dorothy, and a younger brother, John Aubrey Davis, Sr.. Davis’s grandfather had been an abolitionist lawyer. His father led a group of seventeen white clerks as the head of a government printing office before his demotion under the policies of the Wilson administration, and chaired the anti-lynching committee of Washington D.C.'s chapter of the NAACP. Davis would describe him as a “brave man” who was “already marked in a town of 236 citizens” as a large landowner who “further angered whites by registering and voting.”

Allison Davis's path to the university faculty was possible largely because of his academic achievements that preceded it, many of which were entirely unavailable to most African-Americans at the turn of the century

Allison Davis entered Washington D.C.’s segregated Dunbar High School in 1916 and, like his father before him, graduated as its valedictorian. The school had been founded almost a half-century before, making it the nation’s oldest public black high school, and had since developed a reputation that pulled black families to the nation’s capital for the chief purpose of gaining residency within the school district. Bucking national trends, the school had settled firmly in the Du Bois camp during the debates on black education a few years before and offered a rigorous college preparatory curriculum that included Greek and Latin.

Though the quality of black colleges would steadily increase through the mid-century, at the time of Davis’s graduation most black “colleges” were still teaching primary and secondary curricula; the ticket to the white post-graduate program was most often through the white university. Between 1916 and 1922, Dunbar sent sixteen students to the Ivy League, Williams, Amherst, and Wesleyan. Williams College had a singular arrangement with Dunbar that allotted one full merit-based scholarship per year to the valedictorian. From this agreement Williams derived its entire black cohort and in 1920 drew Davis into its ranks.


American WAC, Women's Army Corps, Splash

American WAC, Women's Army Corps, Splash

Manila, April 19, 1945—The first WACs to arrive here lost no time in making good use of an undamaged swimming pool they found on the outskirts of the city. Look at the Filipino kids in the back. All smiles but in a “I can’t believe it” way.

The Women's Army Corps (WAC) was the women's branch of the US Army. It was created as an auxiliary unit, the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps the 14 May 1942, and converted to full status as the WAC in 1943. Its first director was Oveta Culp Hobby, at the time a lawyer, a newspaper research editor and the wife of a prominent Texas politician.
About 150,000 American women served in the WAAC and WAC during World War II. They were the first women other than nurses to serve with the Army. While conservative opinion in the leadership of the Army and public opinion generally was initially opposed to women serving in uniform, the shortage of men necessitated a new policy. While most women served stateside, some went to various places around the World, including Europe, North Africa and New Guinea. For an example WACs landed on Normandy Beach just a few weeks after the initial invasion.
Some men feared that if women became soldiers they would no longer serve in a masculine preserve and their masculinity would be devalued. Others feared being sent into combat units if women took over the safe jobs
General Douglas MacArthur called the WACs "my best soldiers", adding that they worked harder, complained less, and were better disciplined than men. Many generals wanted more of them and proposed to draft women but it was realised that this "would provoke considerable public outcry and Congressional opposition" and the War Department declined to take such a drastic step. Those 150,000 women that did serve released the equivalent of 7 divisions of men for combat. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower said that "their contributions in efficiency, skill, spirit, and determination are immeasurable".
During the same time period, other branches of the U.S. military had similar women's units, including the Navy WAVES, the SPARS of the Coast Guard and the (civil) Women Airforce Service Pilots. The British Armed Forces also had similar units, including the Women's Auxiliary Air Force.
The WAC was disbanded in 1978. Since then, women in the U.S. Army have served in the same units as men, though they have only been allowed in or near combat situations since 1994 when Defense Secretary Les Aspin ordered the removal of "substantial risk of capture" from the list of grounds for excluding women from certain military units

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