A form of pressure filter, non-continuous in operation; used for the removal of water from slurries, tailings, and similar products
A device consisting of a series of cloth filters fixed to frames, used for the large-scale filtration of liquid under pressure
Filter press (sometimes called Plate-and-Frame Filter press) which describes the style of filters developed from the 1800s onwards. The majority of today's filters are more correctly called "chamber filter press", "Membrane filter press", or "Membrane Plate Filter".
A device for filtering and absorbing moisture from oil.
plan: make or work out a plan for; devise; "They contrived to murder their boss"; "design a new sales strategy"; "plan an attack"
the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan); "he contributed to the design of a new instrument"
Decide upon the look and functioning of (a building, garment, or other object), typically by making a detailed drawing of it
an arrangement scheme; "the awkward design of the keyboard made operation difficult"; "it was an excellent design for living"; "a plan for seating guests"
Do or plan (something) with a specific purpose or intention in mind
A belt worn as a sign of rank or achievement
a band to tie or buckle around the body (usually at the waist)
A belt of a specified color, marking the attainment of a particular level in judo, karate, or similar sports
belt out: sing loudly and forcefully
endless loop of flexible material between two rotating shafts or pulleys
A strip of leather or other material worn around the waist or across the chest, esp. in order to support clothes or carry weapons
About the historic district:
The Greenpoint Histrict District occupies a unique position among Brooklyn's historic districts. Unlike the middle-class neighborhoods of Brooklyn's "brownstone belt,—Brooklyn Heights, Fort Greene, Clinton Hill, and Park Slope— whose residents commuted to professional and white collar jobs in downtown Brooklyn or Manhattan, Greenpoint was intimately linked to Brooklyn's industrial development. Its residents worked in nearby factories, and its architecture reflects the varied nature of the neighborhood's occupants. The buildings include substantial rowhouses built for the owners and managers of nearby businesses and factories, more modest rowhouses and numerous flathouses (walk-up apartment houses) for the factory laborers, as well as a variety of commercial buildings on the streets where the residents shopped.
Residential development of the area followed the advent of industry, the first of which was shipbuilding, located on the waterfront. The residential area grew inland from the waterfront. Perhaps because of the industrial character of the area, real estate developers were much less active in Greenpoint than in many other Brooklyn sections where it was common to find long rows of houses erected by developers for resale to middle-class occupants. Although there are examples of this in the district, particularly on the land originally owned by James R. Sparrow and his son (one of the rows they erected consists of twenty-one buildings), more often it was a single individual who bought one lot and had the house he intended to live in built on it. This is particularly so during the earliest period of growth in the area, prior to the Civil War.
The buildings within the district also reflect the importance of the builder tradition in nineteenth-century American architecture. The role between the builder and the architect was not clearly defined until about the time of the Civil War. When the American Institute of Architects was founded in 1857, its members were the most prominent men in the field in the country. This professionalism did not filter down to less well-known practitioners until later in the century.
The usual practice in Greenpoint and elsewhere in Brooklyn was for the owner of a piece of property to hire a builder, i.e., a mason or carpenter, to erect the house on the site. If the owner made particular design requirements, the builder might hire a draftsman to produce plans from which to work. But, because the vast majority of rowhouses have similar plans and construction, a practiced builder needed little outside aid. Also widely used were builders' guidebooks which gave practical advice on construction techniques to those in the building trade and often included plans for houses and designs for architectural details. Moreover, architectural elements such as foliate brackets, window and entrance enframements, and wooden doors, sashes, and shutters could be mass produced at local lumberyards and foundaries. Hence, many buildings within the district have nearly identical window and door lintels, cornices and iron railings.
The ambiguous distinction between builder and architect is illustrated by two men who lived in the area: Thomas C. Smith and Frederick Weber. Smith, an important figure in the history of the district, had been trained as a builder and worked in that trade for nearly thirty years before retiring to Greenpoint where he had come into possession of a bankrupt porcelain factory. He purchased a large tract of land on Milton Street and over a period of years built on it. Since he retired from tne trade because of ill health, it is improbable that Smith acted as mason or carpenter on these houses but it is evident by comparision of interiorand exterior features that he was the architect who designed them. Frederick Weber, who is responsible for a number of buildings, is listed as a carpenter in the directories of the 1870s but, ten years later, he signs Brooklyn Buildings Department permits as an architect.
Within the designated boundaries for the area, the buildings exhibit the architectural styles popular between 1850 and the end of the centuryT often executed in the vernacular builder tradition. The first buildings were erected in the early 1850s and were designed in the then current Italianate style or in a transitional style that combined elements of both the Greek Revival and the Italianate—a not uncommon practice in the builder tradition. The mixture of stylistic elements is particularly evident in the early tenements with"commercial ground floors on Franklin Street. The ground floors are trabeated granite and brick, based on the prototypical Tappan Store (1829) on Pearl Street in Manhattan that had set the standard for commercial architecture for twenty years. The upper floors are pierced by square-headed windows with two-over-two or six-over-six double-hung sash and cap molded lintels. The roof entablatur
Syrup Filter Press
The syrup comes from the evaporator to the filter press to remove "sand", a final residue in the syrup.