Evo glazbeni i engeski
PROPER NOUNS - denote one particular person, place or thing (they have no plural)
~John, London, October,…
COMMNON NOUNS - denote a person, place or thing as one of a class or a group
ü CLASS NOUNS - town, river, man,…
ü COLLECTIVE - family, army, band,…
~ tea, water, iron, paper,…
ABSTRACT - denote some quality, state, feeling, ect.
~ beauty, coldness,…
COUNTABLE / UNCOUNTABLE: a dog, a man / water, sand
a. MASCULINE: farmer, man, father,…
b. FEMININE: mother, woman,…
c. NEUTER: book, tree, bread,…
d. COMMON (male or female): teacher, parent, friend,…
~planets (except Sun) are feminine gender
~animals are masculine if they are big and scary, and feminine if they are gentler
~insects and birds are neuter gender
~three ways of marking a gender:
§ by adding sufiks -ess (lion -- lioness)
§ by prefixing a word (he-bear -- she-bear ; tom-cat -- she-cat)
§ by using a different word for different gender ( boy - girl ; man - woman)
a. SINGULAR - cat, city, boy , wife
b. PLURAL - cats, cities (y in front of a consonant ŕ y=i + es), boys ( y in front of a vowel it remains unchanged), wives (nouns ending with f or fe ŕ f = v + es)
~some English forms have the same form in singular & plural: sheep, fish, deer,…
~some nouns are formed in plural by changing a root vowel: manŕmen ; toothŕteeth;
~some nouns are used only in plural: scissors, trousers, pants,…
a. NOMINATIVE - the town
b. GENITIVE - of the town
§ SAXON GENITIVE: the boy's book; teacher's desk
c. DATIVE - to the town
d. ACCUSATIVE - the town
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (REGULAR)
1. POSITIVE : tall / expensive / big / happy
2. COMPARATIVE: taller / more expensive / bigger / happier
3. SUPERLATIVE: the tallest / the most expensive / the biggest / happiest
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (IRREGULAR)
1. POSITIVE: good / bad / old / useful
2. COMPARATIVE: better / worse / older (elder) / more useful
3. SUPERLATIVE: the best / the worse / the oldest (the eldest) / most useful
COMPARISON WITH as … as , -er than , -est of
John is as old as Peter. (COMPARISON OF EQUALITY)
John is not so tall as his father.
Tanya is the biggest of them all. COMPARISON OF
Anna is better than Maya. SUPERIORITY
Paul is less good than John. COMPARISON
Marry is less strong than Ann. OF
(Marry is weaker than Ann) INFERIORITY
1. CARDINAL: one, two, three,…
§ used to express fractions: 1/3 one third
2. ORDINAL: the first (first), the second (second), third,…
§ used to express dates: May 25th ( May the twenty-fifth)
1. INDEFINITE ARTICLE a / an
§ A is used:
- in front of words which begins with a vowel ( a boy, a lamp,…)
- when we mention something/one for a first time ( We bought a new bike)
- as a numeral: a day (this town was built in a day)
- a = one and the same ( They are of an age.)
- when it has indefinite meaning: any one ( Take a chair. - any chair.)
- with a persons name and then it means a certain (A Mr. Pott rang you up)
- with a distributive meaning ( once a week)
- with few and little ( a few people)
- after many, such, rather, no less, what, … ( What a nice fellow he is)
- with dozen, score, thousand,… (a dozen of roses)
- with some set phrases ( a headache, a guess,…)
§ AN is used:
- in front of words which do not begins with a vowel ( an animal, an evening,…)
2. DEFINITIVE ARTICLE the
§ we use THE :
- when the others know what are we talking about (The car is dirty. - the person knows which car is dirty)
- with things which are unique (I met the Pope)
- in front of names of rivers, seas and oceans, mountains, group of islands: the Nile, the Mt. Everest, the Andes, the Bahamas
- when we talk about the whole category or a type :
Would you feed the cat tomorrow?
- when we talk about characteristic group of people: the French, the young
-with the names of newspapers: The Times
-with the part of the day: the morning
-before same, with superlatives, after all and half
-in some set phrases: to play the piano, to stand the chance
3. OMMISION OF ARTICLE
§ in front of plural and uncountable nouns when we refer to people or things in general: Do you drink _ milk? I find _ dogs cute!
§ in front of names of continents, towns and cities, lakes, single islands, countries: _ Africa, _ Lake Victoria, _ Turkey, … ( BUT ! the USA, the Netherlands)
§ in front of names of airports, stations, streets: _Oxford Street, _ Heathrow Airport
1. PERSONAL (subject): I, you, he, she, it, we, they (She is great.)
2. PERSONAL(object): me, you, him, her, it, us, them ( I love him)
3. INDEFINITE: someone, something, anywhere, nobody, nothing (Nothing is everything)
4. POSSESSIVE: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs (This book is mine)
5. DEMONSTRATIVE: this, that, these, those (I like these more)
6. REFLEXIVE: myself, yourself, himself, herself,… ( I hate myself)
7. RELATIVE: who, which, that, whose, whom, where, when
8. RECIPROCAL: each other, one another
9. THE PRONOUNS ONE AND YOU ( One should always look after each other)
ADVERBS - word which modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective or another adverb
1. ADVERBS OF MANNERS ( badly, slowly, well)
2. ADVERBS OF PLACE (here, everywhere, down)
3. ADVERBS OF DEFINITIVE TIME (today, now, yesterday)
4. ADVERBS OF INDEFINITIVE TIME ( sometimes, often, always)
5. ADVERBS OF DEGREE (very, too, enough, quite)
COMPARISON OF ADVERBS - the same as with adjectives
POSSITION IN ASENTENCE - it is placed near the word which it modifies (it follows the word which it modifies), except with adverbs of definitive time where it is placed at the end/beginning of the sentence
DEFINING R. CLAUSES - used to identify the person or thing we are talking about ( I know a lot of people who've stopped eating meat)
§ in defining relative clauses we can use the following relative pronouns:
a. WHO to refer to people (I've a friend who has more than ten different pets)
b. WHICH to refer to things (I've found a photograph which was taken 10 years ago)
c. THAT to refer to animals, things and people instead which & who (The building that you can see was built in 1899)
d. WHOSE to talk about possessions (They have a dog whose barking drives me mad)
e. WHERE to refer to places (Do you know where we are going?)
f. WHEN to refer to time (I remember the moment when I first saw you)
2. NON DEFINING R. CLAUSES - used to give extra info about a person or thing:
§ My new computer, which has coasted 2000 dollars, is brilliant.
§ My sister, who has just turned 18, is a very bright person.
CLASIFCATION - the verb is the most important part of the sentence
NUMBERS (singular, plural)
§ THE ACTIVE (The postman delivers the mail twice a day.)
§ THE PASSIVE (The post is delivered twice a day.)
§ THE INDICATIVE - represents something as a fact ( The sun rises every day)
§ THE SUBJUNCATIVE - represents something we hope ( I wish you were here)
§ THE IMPERATIVE - represents commands, orders (Go home!)
TENSES ( Present, Past, Futurity)
§ CONTINUOUS ( The sun rises in the east)
§ INDEFINITE (The sun is rising in the east)
NON - FINITE VERBAL FORMS:
§ infinitive without to (He need not come)
§ infinitive + to ( I used to listen Beatles.)
§ PRESENT PARTICIPLE (verb + ing) - is used to form continuous tenses, in some set phrases…
The candle is burning.
§ PAST PARTICIPLE
- is formed by adding -ed (asked)
- is used to form compound tenses ( I have asked)
3. GERUND - verb + ing
§ Writing is easy.
§ He is found of being a hero.
§ He admitted stealing the money.
REGULAR / IRREGULAR VERBS:
1. REGULAR - their forms are made by adding suffixes
(to ask ŕ he asksŕhe askedŕhe was askedŕhe is asking)
2. IRREGULAR - they have a special form which we have to learn by heart
( canŕcould ; mayŕmight ; singŕsangŕsung )
§ AUXILLARY VERBS - those which help to form tenses of another verb
(shall, will ; to have, to be, to do)
TRANSITIVE / INTRANSITIVE / REFLEXIVE VERBS
1. TRANSITIVE ( I see the tracks in the snow.)
2. INTRANSITIVE ( I am sitting)
3. REFLEXIVE ( They have always been able to defend themselves)
IMPERSONAL VERBS - those which stand only in third person singular ( it rains -- it is raining)
MODAL VERBS - they express present and future probability
1. WILL - is used to predict a future event which is a future fact ( Class will end in 10 pm)
2. MUST - is used when have a lot evidence that something will happen but it is less certain than will. CAN'T is used instead of negative form of must! (You must be joking! She can't have a 10 year old daughter!)
3. SHOULD - express what may reasonably be expected to happen
(Our guests should be here soon)
4. MAY - express the possibility that something will happen or is already happening
(We may go to Greece this year. We haven't decided yet.)
5. MIGHT - also express possibility but in more tentative way
( It might rain. Take your umbrella.)
6. COULD- express possibility but in more tentative way. MIGHT NOT is negative form of COULD! (It could rain, but I doubt it.) (He might not come.)
7. CAN - is used to express what is generally and in all-time true, and logically possible.
(Cycling in town can be dangerous.)
1. PRESENT SIMPLE ( verb + s) is used to talk about:
§ general truths: Ice melts when it is heated.
§ activities that are repeated regularly: I drink two cups of coffee every day.
§ permanent situations & states: We like our neighborhood.
§ future facts: The concert starts at 7p.m.
2. PRESENT CONTINUOUS is used to talk about:
§ activities in progress at the time of speaking:
(I'm having a shower.) (I'm doing my homework)
3. PRESENT PERFECT is used to talk about things that happened in the past when we look back on them from the present perspective past events with consequences in the present:
§ past events with consequences in the present:
The match has been canceled. (We can't watch it)
§ single or repeated event in the past: I have driven a lorry.
§ past situations that continue up till now: I have lived here all my life.
4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS is used to talk about:
§ a repeated activity that started in the past and isn't necessarily finished:
Who have you been going out with recently?
§ an activity from the past which has consequences in the present:
She has been crying all day long.
1. PAST SIMPLE - is used to talk about single / repeated events in the past when we know when they happened:
(We talked to Peter after the movie.) ( I went to the cinema a lot when I was in high school)
2. PAST CONTINUOUS is used to talk about:
§ activities that continued for some time in the past: We were dancing all night.
§ activities that form a background to past events: I was thinking what are you going to do when I kiss you.
3. PAST PERFECT is used to talk about an event or situation in the past which happened before another past event: We couldn't open the door because the caretaker had put a new lock on it.
4. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS is used to talk about longer activities in the past that happened before another past event: I realized he had been cheating since the beginning of the game.
PRESENT SIMPLE - is used to talk about future facts and timetables:
(My train leaves in 20 minutes and arrives in Paris at 10 a.m.)
PRESENT CONTINUOUS is used to talk about:
§ future events that we have arranged: (I am leaving tonight.)
TO BE GING TO + infinitive is used to express intention:
(I am going to relax more this year.)
WILL + infinitive is used to express sudden decision made of the moment of speaking:
I will buy a new car.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS is used to talk about activities that will be in progres at a certain time in the future: (Next Saturday I will be shopping all day.)
FUTURE PERFECT is used to talk about actions that will be completed before a certain time in the future:
By the time you get this letter I will have begun the second part of my journey
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES ( If clause + main clause )
1. ZERO CONDITIONAL is used to describe rules and situations where one event always follows the other:
If students learn a lot, they usually pass exams.
( If + Present Simple) (Present Simple)
2.FIRST CONDITIONAL is used to talk about possible future events which depend on other future events or to give someone order or advice:
§ If you don't exercise you will never lose weight.
( If + Present Simple) ( will / won't + infinitive without to)
§ If you travel by plane, remember to drink a lot of water.
( If + Present Simple) ( imperative)
3. SECOND CONDITIONAL is used to talk about:
§ imagined events in the future which are impossible: If I got a good job I would spend the money on a new computer.
§ impossible present situations: If people had common sense, there wouldn't be any wars.
(If + Past) ( would / could / might + infinitive without to)
4.THIRD CONDITIONAL is used to talk about unreal situations in the past:
If I had known you were ill, I would have phoned you.
(If + Past Perfect) (would / Could / might + perfect infinitive)
5. MIXED CONDITIONALS are used to talk about:
§ imaginary past situations that could have led to consequences in present:
If I had more self-confidence, I would have applied for that job.
( If + Past Perfect) ( would + infinitive)
§ unreal present situations which could have had some consequences in the past: If Anna was here, she would have known what to do.
( If + Past Simple) ( would + perfect infinitive)
PASSIVE & ACTIVE VOICE
§ ACTIVE VOICE: The postman delivers the mail twice a day.
§ PASSIVE VOICE: The post is delivered twice a day. ( by postman)
REPORTING PASSIVE WITH SEEM & APPEAR is used when we give information without stating that we know it to be true:
It seems / appears that postman delivers the mail twice a day.
The postman seems / appears to be delivering the mail twice a day.
§ IN SHORT ANSWERS: ''Should I revise for this test?'' Yes, I think you should.
§ COMMENTING ON GIVEN INFO: ''Mary is coming.'' I know she is.
§ RESPONDING WITH DIFFERENT AUXILIARY: ''I didn't see the film'' You should have, it was great!
§ USING MORE THAN ONE AUXIALIARY: ''He could have been lying.'' Yes, he could/ could have / could have been.
CAUSATIVE HAVE / GET
Is used to express that we ask someone else to do something for us:
We are having our flat redecorated. ( someone else is redecorating it)
I must get my room painted.
FORM: HAVE / GET (in any tense) + object + verb
1. WITH GERUND AFTER :
He admitted / regretted stealing the money.
After leaving school he joined the army.
2. WITH THE INFINITIVE + TO:
He asked / promised to do it.
They begged / ordered him to do it.
WITH INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO:
They made / let / helped me do it.
3. VERB + THAT + CLAUSE : He promised ( that) he would do it.
4. VERB + -ing OR to: It started to rain / raining.
5. WITH PERFECT AND PASSIVE FORMS: I don't remember having said that.
§ Is used to report what someone has said:
John: ''I love you'' ŕJohn said (that) he loved her.
Susan: ''Mike help me''. ŕ Susan asked Mike to help her.
Mike: ''I am thirsty'' ŕ Mike said he was thirsty.
§ we must use the rule of SEQUENCE OF TENSES:
PRESENT SIMPLE ŕ PAST SIMPLE
PRESENT CONTINUOUS ŕ PAST CONTINUOUS
PRESENT PERFECT ŕ PAST PERFECT
PRESENT PERFECT CONT ŕ PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
PAST SIMPLE ŕ PAST PERFECT
PAST CONTINUOUS ŕ PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS
WILL ŕ WOULD
BE GOING TO ŕ WAS / WERE GOING TO
FIRST CONDITIONAL ŕ SECOND CONDITIONAL
NOW ŕ THEN
AT THE MOMENT ŕ AT THAT MOMENT
YESTERDAY ŕ THE DAY BEFORE
TOMMOROW ŕ THE NEXT DAY
HERE ŕ THERE
AGO ŕ BEFORE
1. SASTAVNICE GLAZBENOG DJELA: ritam(adante, moderato, alegro), dinamika (piano, forte, mezzoforte), tonalitet, izvođaći (vokalni, instrumentalni), harmonija, melodija, glazbeni slog(polifon, homofon), glazbeni oblik, glazbeno razdoblje
2. SREDNJI VIJEK (5. -15. st)
§ CRKVENA GLAZBA-dio kršč obreda, razvoj notacije
§ GREGORIJANSKI KORAL ( 6.st. Schola Cantorum) - a cappella, na lat, ritam prati tekstŕ jednoglasje
§ ORGANUM (9. -12. st.scuola Notra damme) - višeglasni glazbeni oblik nastao dodavanjem glasova na gregorijanski koral ŕ višeglasje
§ ARS ANTIQUA (13. st) i ARS NUOVA (14.st) - usavršavanje notacije, instrumentalna glazba (za ples i zabavu), svjetovna glazba(trubaduri, žongleri)
3. RENESANSA (15. i polovica 16.st.)
§ višeglasje, povezanost tona i riječi, polifonija, a cappella, crkvena glazba, razvoj instrumenata(lutnja, orgulje)
§ svjetovni oblici: MADRIGAL, VILANELA, FROTOLA
crkveni oblici: MISA, MOTET
~MADRIGAL - zborska ghlazba koja se višeglasno pjeva na narodnom jeziku, svaki odlomak je obrađen kao nova cijelinaŕMarenzio i Monteverdi
~MISA - višestavačna poliofona skladba, dio katoličkog bogoslužja, stavci:Kiri, gloria,kredo,sanktus, benediktus, adnus dei ŕPalestrina
~MOTET - višestavačna zborska skladba s crkvenim tekstom na latinskom jeziku, trodijelan ŕLasso
4. BAROK(1600. -1750.)
§ izražavanje snage i raskoši, uznemirenost, prenatrpanost, basso continuo, motorika, polifonija i homofonija, razvoj instrumentalne glazbe(puhači i gudači), ritmička pokretljivost, dur i mol, razvoj opere
§ predstavnici: Bach, Handel, Vivaldi
§ glazbeni oblici: koncert, suita, sonata, fuga, oratorij, kantata
5. ORATORIJ i KANTATA
§ ORATORIJ je vokalno-instrumentalno djelo za soliste, zbor i orkestar, ''opera bez scene''; sastoji se od činova, slika, brojeva i scena. Opsežan je i svečanog karaktera.
predstavnici: Handel, Bach
§ KANTATA je kratka i lirskog karaktera, govori o ljubavi
predstavnici: Bach(Jesus bleibt meine Freunde), Orf(Carmina burana)
6. BEČKA KLASIKA(1770. - 1820.)
§ homofonija, melodija - glavno izražajno sredstvo,pjevna je i jednostavna; harmonija je jasna i jednostavna, ritam raznolik, dinamika je postepena, razvoj instrumenata i povećanje orkestra
§ predstavnici: Haydin, Mozart (Requiem, Figarov pir, Čarobna frula)
7. ROMANTIZAM(1820 - 1914)
§ emocionalnost, mašta, individualnost, subjektivnost, osjećaj boli i patnje, bijeg od stvarnosti, utjeha u svijetu mašte i misticizmu, pojava nacionalnog, individualnog i programnog stila
§ predstavnici: Beethoven, Chopin, Berlioz, Schubert, Čajkovski
§ gl. oblici: simfonija,sonata, opera, koncert, komorna glazba, solo pj, glasovirska minijatura
8. BEETHOVEN - austrijski skladatelj i dirigent; premošćuje 2 stila ( klasiku i romantizam), u djelima odražava individualnost i osjećaje, a piše u klasičnom instrumentalnom ciklusu, povećao simfonijski orkestar
§ djela: 9 simfonija, 32 sonate( Mjesečeva i Patetična), 16 gudačkih kvarteta, opera Fidellio
9. PROGRAMNA GLAZBA
§ instrumentalna glazba s programom
§ značajke: povećanje orkestra, broja puhaća, udaraljke dobivaju veću ulogu, duge pjevne melodije, promjenjiva mjera i dinamika
§ predstavnici: Čajkovski, Berlioz ( uveo idee fix)
10. SIMFONIJA - višestavačno glazb djelo za simfonijski orkestar, nastala u klasici, ima 4 stavka, pisana u sonatnom ciklusu. U romantizmu je glavna forma, ima od 2-5 stavaka, idee fix
§ skladatelji: Čajkovski, Schuman, Berlioz, Mozart, Beethoven
11. SONATNI CIKLUS
§ 4 stavka: sonatni oblik
sonatni oblik ( sastoji se od 3 djela: ekspozicija, provedba i repriza)
12. BAROKNI KONCERT
§ višestavačno djelo za solo i simfonijski orkestar, postoje SOLO KONCERT( izmjenjivanje solo instrumenta i tutti) i KONCERTO GROSSO (izmjenjivanje concertina i tutti)
§ predstavnik: Vivaldi, Bach
13. KLASIČNI KONCERT
§ ima 3 - 4 stavka, pisan za solo instrument i simf orkestar, raspored stavka kao u simf
§ predstavnici: Mozart, Haydn
14. ROMANTIČARSKI KONCERT
§ ima 3 - 4 stavka i pisan je za solo instrument i simfonijski orkestar, raspored stavka je kao u simfoniji; solo instrument je najčešće violina i klavir
§ Čajkovski (koncert za glasovir u b-molu), Mendelson (koncert za violinu u e-molu)
15. SUITA - nastala u baroku, niz stiliziranih plesnih stavaka poredanih po tempu, mjeri i karakteru (allwmande, courante, sarabande, menuet, žig)
§ predstavnici: Bach, Grieg, Musorgski
16. OPERA U BAROKU - vokalno-instrumentalno glazbeno scensko djelo za soliste, zbor, orkestar i balet. Sastoji se od činova,slika, prizora i brojeva (arija, recitativ, duet, uvertira, intermezzo,…). Postoji opera seria ( 5 činova) i opera buffa ( 3 čina, komična)
§ prva opera: Perry (Daphne); prva opera današnjeg karaktera: Monteverdi (Orfej)
17. OPERA U KLASICI - dolazi do operne reforme ŕ Gluck: pojednostavljuje libreto, naglašava jednostavnost, jednostavne arije, povezuje zbor i orkestar, recitativ u z pratnju orkestra, uvertira prepričava sadržaj
§ prva opera: Orfej i Euridika; Mozart ( Čarobna frula, Don Giovanni)
18. OPERA U ROMANTIZMU
§ vokalno-instrumentalno glazbeno scensko djelo za soliste, zbor, orkestar i balet. Sastoji se od činova,slika, prizora i brojeva (arija, recitativ, duet, uvertira, intermezzo,…). Postoji opera seria ( 5 činova) i opera buffa ( 3 čina, komična)
§ skladatelji: Rossini(Sevijski brijač), Belinni(Norma), Donizetti
19. HRVATSKA NACIONALNA OPERA
§ 1. opera V.Lisinskog: (Ljubav i zloba; Porin); I.pl Zajc: (Nikola Šubić Zrinski); Gotovac: (Ero s onoga svijeta)
20. OPERNI REALIZAM i VERIZAM
§ REALIZAM - tematika opere i likovi su obični ljudi iz svakidašnjeg života (Musorgski - Boris Godunov; Bizet-Carmen)
§ VERIZAM-likovima upravljaju strasti:ljubav, nevjera, mržnja, ljubomora (Masagni-Cavaleria rusticana)
§ glazbeno scensko djelo u kojem se radnja izvršava plesom i pantomimom. Sastoji se od činova i brojeva, nastao u 15.st.
§ predstavnici: Čajkovski(Labuđe jezero, Trnoružica,Orašar), Stravinski (Petruška, Posvećenje proljeća), Lotha(Đavo u selu)
22. IMPRESIONIZAM(1874. - 1920.)
§ značajke: programna glazba, male lirske forme(glasovirska minijatura, solo pjesma), modusi, pentatonika, kromatika, nizanje akorda
§ predstavnici: Debusy, Ravel
23. JAZZ- nastao u Americi u 20.st., glazba američkih crnaca, slobodna improvizirana glazba, ujedinjuje eu i afričku glazbu, sinkopirani ritam, izvođači su big bend (puhači, udaraljke, glasovir), glazbeni oblik je tema s varijacijama
§ predstavnici: Armstrong, Gershwin
24. ROCK - nastao u Americi, jednostavne pjesme u 4/4 mjeri, izvođači su bandovi, combo (2-8 svirača)
§ predstavnici: Presley, Beatles
25. MJUZIKL - vokalno-instrumentalno glazbeno scensko djelo za soliste, zbor, orkestar i balet. Sastoji se od činova,slika, prizora i brojeva; nastao u Americi, ima 2 čina, uz simf orkestar nadodane se električne gitare, bubnjevi i klavijature. Umjesto arije ima song.
§ predstavnici: Webber(Fantom u operi, Mačke, Kosa), Bernstein(West Side Story), Kabiljo (Jalta, Jalta)
26. DVADESETO STOLJEĆE
§ sloboda u stvaralaštvu, napredak u tehnologiji, snimanje glazbe, pojava zabavne glazbe
§ pravci: impresionizam, ekspresionizam, neoromantizam, punktualizam, neoklasicizam
§ eksperimenti s ljestvicama, strukturom akorda, harmonijom, ritam naglašen, ekstremna dinamika
§ proširen tonalitet, dodekafonija, politonalitet
§ pobuna protiv društvenih pravila, otuđenost, strah, razočaranje
§ glazbenici upotrebljavaju atonalnost, disonance, ekstremnu dinamiku, nove zvukovne boje
§ predstavnici: Schonberg, Berg, Webern, Stravinski
28. NEOKLASICIZAM - klasična forma, jednostavnost izraza, kontrola emocija, suvremeni glazbeni jezik, naglašen ritam, slobodna harmonija
§ predstavnici: Papandopuno, Prokofijev, Šostaković
29. NACIONALNI STILOVI
§ RUSIJA - temelji se na folkloru, snimanje folklorne glazbe, ujedinjuje narodne glazbe s suvremenom; Stravinski, Rahmanjinov
§ RUMUNJSKA - B.Bartok - spojio elemente folklora i suvremeni glazbenijezik, upotreba starih načina, narodnih ljestvica i ritmova, prepoznatljivi zvuk vlastitih ideja
~B.Bartok: klavirske skladbe, gudački kvarteti, scenska glazba, opere (Rumunjski plesovi)
Popis slušnih primjera: Vivaldi: proljeće I ljeto;Beethoven:5.simfonija; Čajkovski: labuđe jezero I Orašar; Smetana:Vltava; Verdi:Rigoleto; Rosini:Figaro; MAsagni:Cavaleria rusticana; Bizet:Carmen; Webber:Fantom u operi I All I ask of you; Mozart:mala noćna muzika; 40 simfonija
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