RICE COOKING TIPS. COOKING TIPS
Rice Cooking Tips. Cooking Academy 2 Gratis.
Rice Cooking Tips
- Rice is a cooking term meaning to pass food through a food mill or "ricer", which comes in several forms.
- (tip) the extreme end of something; especially something pointed
- (tip) cause to tilt; "tip the screen upward"
- (tip) gratuity: a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter)
- Predict as likely to win or achieve something
- Give (someone) a sum of money as a way of rewarding them for their services
rice field-7?????DSC 0241
a field of grain
Principal Japanese staple crop; an annual marshland plant of tropical origin; introduced into Japan in the Yayoi period (ca 300 BC? ca AD 300), either from China or the Korean peninsula. Rice cultivation was traditionally regarded as a religious act?an invoking of the inadama or spirit of the rice plant (see ta no kami). Supplications to the deity survive today in various forms of folk performing arts. Many festivals in honor of tutelary deities are also harvest festivals (see also agricultural rites). It is generally agreed that the Japanese extended family (ie) system evolved within the context of the rice culture, which required intensive farming, a sophisticated system of water control, and communal cooperation (see yui). In this sense rice may be said to have determined the very contours of Japanese society.
The common agricultural species is Oryza sativa. Like other plants of the family Gramineae, it has leaves with parallel venation; they sprout from the upper nodes of the stem, and the roots from the lower nodes. From the base of the main stem grow tillers (offshoots), and from these grow more tillers. Each tiller has leaves and roots, is virtually self-sustaining, and forms a panicle at its tip. Rice grows best in warm temperatures; the lowest temperature for germination is about 8>?10>C (46>?50>F), and the ideal temperature for growth is 26>?31>C (79>?88>F). High temperature and short days hasten heading. Since rice plants have a system for conducting oxygen from the air to the roots, they are resistant to severe oxygen shortage. They cannot withstand drought and flourish best in irrigated paddies. With proper fertilization and burning of stubble after harvest, there are no ill effects from repeated cultivation of the same field.
O. sativa is divided into three general types according to form, ecotype, and hereditary characteristics: indica, japonica, and javanica. Japonica-type rice contains less amylose and more amylopectin than other types of rice, giving it the greater glutinousness and special texture favored by the Japanese. Both mochi (glutinous rice), which becomes sticky when cooked, and the less starchy uruchi (regular rice) strains are found in all three types. Varieties classified according to area of cultivation are paddy or wet rice, suited for paddy fields; upland or dry rice, for dry fields; and floating rice, for flood-prone areas. In Japan, paddy rice accounts for 99.7 percent of the total production.
More than 100,000 varieties of rice are grown in more than 100 countries, with several thousand in Japan alone. In Japan, improvement of rice plants on an institutionalized and modern scientific basis was started in 1904 with hybridization experiments; pure line selection and, later, radiation breeding have also been utilized. These experiments have resulted in improved productivity, early maturity, and resistance to disease, cold weather, and lodging (stalk collapse). Koshihikari and Sasanishiki, both grown in the northeast, are among the most popular types of Japanese rice and command a high price. Since World War II, with land improvement, breeding of varieties responsive to fertilizers, improvement of fertilizing techniques, and the development of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides, average yields have increased to more than 4.0 metric tons per hectare (1.8 short tons per acre). Since the beginning of the 1960s agricultural machinery has largely replaced human and animal labor, and threshing and hulling as well as transplanting of seedlings are now done by machines. At the same time, because of herbicides, there has been a reduction in the work load. In 1999 total production was 9,175,000 metric tons (10,092,500 short tons).
Typhoons pose the greatest hazard to rice plants in Japan, but in northern Japan considerable damage can be done if there is unseasonably cool weather during the inflorescence stage. Growing use of fertilizers has led to an increase in such diseases as rice blight (imochibyo), which causes the greatest damage of all crop diseases. Insects such as rice-stem borers, paddy borers, and plant hoppers cause considerable damage. Preventive measures have included the planting of insect-resistant varieties and, until recently, the application of various herbicides and insecticides. Because of restrictions on the use of environmentally unsafe chemicals, the employment of natural enemies has been encouraged.
Rice consumption has decreased dramatically in Japan, with per capita consumption falling from 114.9 kilograms (253.3 1b) in 1960 to 65.2 kilograms (143.8 lb) in 1998. This phenomenon may be explained by the increased consumption of bread and animal food products. Rice contains somewhat less protein than wheat, but the quality of the protein is superior. Although customarily boiled and eaten plain, rice can be processed in many ways. Cooked glutinous rice is pound
My wild rice salad
wild rice (brown and red) + parsley + white toasted almonds + shallots + red peppers + celery + carrots
3 lemons + bit of red and white vinegar + olive oil + s/p + pinch of cumin
Cook the rice and let it cool. Toast the almonds in dry pan. Cut all the veggies and parsley. Mix everything in a large bowl. Mix the dressing and add it to the bowl with some salt/pepper to taste.
Letting this sit overnight in the fridge before eating allows the rice to soak up some flavors.
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