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Cross-Continental Agro-Food Chains: Structures, Actors and Dynamics in the Global Food System (Routledge Studies in Human Geography)
Filling a gap in contemporary food and globalization scholarship, this timely book presents recent case-study research on the globalization of food systems, and the impacts for communities around the world. It covers debates on new structures and food products, as well as detailed accounts of fresh horticulture, tropical crops and livestock.
Drawing together contributions of twenty-six leading international social scientists from eleven countries, this book will interest researchers in geography, development studies, agricultural economics and political science, as well as professionals in the fields of trade and food policy.
A tortoise at the Galapagos Giant Tortoise Centre on Isabella
Galapagos Giant Tortoise
The Galapagos tortoise or Galapagos giant tortoise (Geochelone nigra) is the largest living tortoise, native to seven islands of the Galapagos archipelago. The Galapagos tortoise is unique to the Galapagos Islands. Fully grown adults can weigh over 300 kilograms (661 lb) and measure 1.2 meters (4 ft) long. They are long-lived with a life expectancy in the wild estimated to be 100-150 years. Populations fell dramatically because of hunting and the introduction of predators and grazers by humans since the seventeenth century. Now only ten subspecies of the original twelve exist in the wild. However, conservation efforts since the establishment of the Galapagos National Park and the Charles Darwin Foundation have met with success, and hundreds of captive-bred juveniles have been released back onto their home islands. They have become one of the most symbolic animals of the fauna of the Galapagos Islands. The tortoises have very large shells (carapace) made of bone. The bony plates of the shell are integral to the skeleton, fused with the ribs in a rigid protective structure. Naturalist Charles Darwin remarked "These animals grow to an immense size ... several so large that it required six or eight men to lift them from the ground.". This is due to the phenomenon of island gigantism whereby in the absence of natural predation, the largest tortoises had a survival advantage and no disadvantage in fleeing or fending off predators. When threatened, it can withdraw its head, neck and all forelimbs into its shell for protection, presenting a protected shield to a would-be predator. The legs have hard scales that also provide armour when withdrawn. Tortoises keep a characteristic scute pattern on their shell throughout life. These have annual growth bands but are not useful for aging as the outer layers are worn off. There is little variation in the dull-brown colour of the shell or scales. Physical features (including shape of the shell) relate to the habitat of each of the subspecies. These differences were noted by Captain Porter even before Charles Darwin. Larger islands with more wet highlands such as Santa Cruz and the Alcedo Volcano on Isabela have lush vegetation near the ground. Tortoises here tend to have 'dome-back' shells. These animals have restricted upward head movement due to shorter necks, and also have shorter limbs. These are the heaviest and largest of the subspecies.Smaller, drier islands such as Espanola and Pinta are inhabited by tortoises with 'saddleback' shells comprising a flatter carapace which is elevated above the neck and flared above the hind feet. Along with longer neck and limbs, this allows them to browse taller vegetation. On these drier islands the Galapagos Opuntia cactus (a major source of their fluids) has evolved a taller, tree-like form. This is evidence of an evolutionary arms race between progressively taller tortoises and correspondingly taller cacti. Saddlebacks are smaller in size than domebacks. They tend to have a yellowish color on lower mandible and throat. At one extreme, the Sierra Negra volcano population that inhabits southern Isabela Island has a very flattened "tabletop" shell. However, there is no saddleback/domeback dualism; tortoises can also be of 'intermediate' type with characteristics of both. The tortoises are slow-moving reptiles with an average long-distance walking speed of 0.3 km/h (0.18 mph). Although feeding giant tortoises browse with no apparent direction, when moving to water-holes or nesting grounds, they can move at surprising speeds for their size. Marked individuals have been reported to have traveled 13 km in two days. Being cold-blooded, the tortoises bask for two hours after dawn, absorbing the energy through their shells, then becoming active for 8–9 hours a day. They may sleep for about sixteen hours in a mud wallow partially or submerged in rain-formed pools (sometimes dew ponds formed by garua-moisture dripping off trees). This may be both a thermoregulatory response and a protection from parasites such as mosquitoes and ticks. Some rest in a 'pallet'- a snug depression in soft ground or dense brush- which probably helps to conserve heat and may aid digestion. On the Alcedo Volcano, repeated use of the same sites by the large resident population has resulted in the formation of small sandy pits. Darwin observed that: "The inhabitants believe that these animals are absolutely deaf; certainly they do not overhear a person walking near behind them. I was always amused, when overtaking one of these great monsters as it was quietly pacing along, to see how suddenly, the instant I passed, it would draw in its head and legs, and uttering a deep hiss fall to the ground with a heavy sound, as if struck dead." The tortoises can vocalise in aggressive encounters, whilst righting themselves if turned upside down and, in males,
The Answer Revealed: Cuauhtémoc
The Answer Revealed:
Cuauhtemoc (also known as Cuauhtemotzin, Guatimozin or Guatemoc; c. 1502–1525) was the Aztec ruler (tlatoani) of Tenochtitlan from 1520 to 1521. The name Cuauhtemoc means "One That Has Descended Like an Eagle"; in Nahuatl — commonly rendered in English as "Falling Eagle"; — and was pronounced [k?a?w?temo?k].
Cuauhtemoc took power in 1520 as successor of Cuitlahuac and was a nephew of the emperor Moctezuma II, and his young wife was one of Moctezuma's daughters. He ascended to the throne when he was 18 years of age, as his city was being besieged by the Spanish and devastated by an epidemic of smallpox. Probably after the killings in the main temple, there were few Aztec captains available to take the position.
On August 13, 1521, Cuauhtemoc went to call for reinforcements from the countryside to aid the falling Tenochtitlan, after eighty days straight of urban warfare against the Spanish. Of all the Nahuas, only Tlatelolcas remained loyal, and the surviving Tenochcas looked for refuge in Tlatelolco where even women took part in the battle. Cuauhtemoc was captured while crossing Lake Texcoco in disguise. He surrendered to Hernan Cortes along with the surviving pipiltin (nobles), and offered him his knife and asked to be killed.
At first, Cortes treated his foe chivalrously. "A Spaniard knows how to respect valor even in an enemy," he declared. However, he allowed Aldrete, the royal treasurer, to have Cuauhtemoc tortured to make him reveal the whereabouts of hidden treasure. Cuauhtemoc, insisting that there was no hidden treasure, stood up under the ordeal.
Cuauhtemoc was tortured by having his feet put to a fire, along with Tetlepanquetzal, the tlatoani of Tlacopan, and the Cihuacoatl (counselor) Tlacotzin, but even so they refused to divulge information about the treasures the Spanish coveted. It is said that during the torture, Tetlepanquetzal asked him to reveal the location of the treasures in order to stop the pain given to them, and Cuauhtemoc is quoted to say "Do you think I am in a bath for pleasure?" This would be popularized in the 19th century as "Do you think I am in a bed of roses?" The date and details of this episode are unknown. In the end, a shamed Cortes delivered Cuauhtemoc from Aldrete's hands.
Eventually Cortes recovered some gold from a noble's house, but most of the tales about "Aztec gold" is a myth. Since for the Aztecs, gold had no intrinsic value[verification needed], they did not have big solid pieces of gold, instead they preferred wood covered with gold. After those pieces were melted, they only gave a fraction of the gold that Cortes and his men expected.
In 1525, Cortes took Cuauhtemoc and several other indigenous nobles on his expedition to Honduras, fearing that Cuauhtemoc could have led an insurrection in his absence. While the expedition was stopped in the Chontal Maya capital of Itzamkanac, known as Acalan in Nahuatl, Cortes had Cuauhtemoc executed for allegedly conspiring to kill him and the other Spaniards.
There are a number of discrepancies in the various accounts of the event. According to Cortes himself, on 27 February 1525 it was revealed to him by a citizen of Tenochtitlan named Mexicalcingo that Cuauhtemoc, Coanacoch (the ruler of Texcoco) and Tetlepanquetzal (the ruler of Tlacopan) were plotting his death. Cortes interrogated them until each confessed, and then had Cuauhtemoc, Tetlepanquetzal, and another lord named Tlacatlec hanged. Cortes wrote that the other lords would be too frightened to plot against him again, as they believed he had uncovered the plan through magic powers. Cortes's account is supported by the historian Francisco Lopez de Gomara.
Diaz wrote that afterwards, Cortes suffered from insomnia due to guilt, and badly injured himself while wandering at night.
Fernando de Alva Cortes Ixtlilxochitl, a Mestizo historian and descendant of Coanacoch, wrote an account of the executions in the 17th century partly based on Texcocan oral tradition. According to Ixtlilxochitl the three lords were joking cheerfully with each other, due to a rumor that Cortes had decided to return the expedition to Mexico, when Cortes asked a spy to tell him what they are talking about. The spy reported honestly, but Cortes invented the plot himself. Cuauhtemoc, Coanacoch and Tetlepanquetzal were all hanged, as well as eight others. However, Cortes cut down Coanacoch, the last to be hanged, after his brother began rallying his warriors. Coanacoch did not have long to enjoy his reprieve — Ixtlilxochitl wrote that he died a few days later.
According to the account of the Chontal Maya inhabitants of Itzamkanac recorded in the 17th century, Cuauhtemoc approached Paxbolonacha, the local Maya ruler, telling him of the evils of the Spaniards, and sesting that the Mayas and Nahuas join forces to kill them. Paxbolonacha refused, observing the Spaniards to be peaceful and well-behaved, and a
gold cross chains for men
This one of a kind hand made olive wood key chain has been carefully hand made from the trimmings from olive trees after harvest here in Jordan. This product brings to life a rainbow of warm earth tones. Each piece is hand cut, hand sanded and hand inspected for quality. Made and assembled by Arab men and women, many with disabilities. No two pieces are exactly the same. Please note you may not get the same wood grain as the one in this picture.
The Cross measures 1.5 inches across by 2.25 inches tall.
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