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Corals From Chor Bazar
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I got my corals from a bawa at Chor Bazar.. I have a better quality than what I am wearing..I wera these sometimes I wear dure najaf and turquoise
What is coral. A coral, unlike most other gemstones is actually the skeletal remains of marine polyps. The polyps are surrounded by a fleshy skin and excrete a carbonic substance from which the coral grows like trees and branches. This happens in the warm waters of the ocean at depths of around 10 to 500 feet where various coral species survive. In some places saltwater corals also exist.
Precious corals or red corals are called corallium rubrum, a word that is derived from a Latin word related to the Greek word Koralliom. The hard skeletons of the red coral branches have a matte look and are therefore dull. However, these can be polished to a beautiful shine for use as precious gems. A coral, therefore, like a pearl, can be categorized as an organic gem material.
The history tells us that the oldest coral to be used in coral jewelry was thousands of years ago around 3000 B.C. For almost 2000 years, the Romans used the coral gemstone extensively and made it popular.
In India, this gem is known by various names like mangal, moonga and pavlam. This gemstone is one of the Navagraha stones (stones that represent the nine planets that have a cosmic influence on all earthlings) and represents Mars (Mangal). It is related to attributes like courage, initiative, vitality, vigor, aggression. Coral has a special significance in Indian astrology and has found mention in ancient Indian Vedic Literature. It is one of the many starts that have an important place in the study of star signs.
Coral gemstones are known to have many healing powers and are specifically associated with the circulatory system of the body and known to have helped in curing many blood-related diseases. It is also used as a holistic aid in ensuring recovery from diseases indicated by the planet Mars, such as fever, cold and cough. For therapeutic purposes, this gem must be set in silver and worn in the ring finger.
Red coral jewelry is still worn as talismans in various cultures. It is presumed that the stone can help in protecting the wearer against evil spirits. In South India it is a tradition for married women to wear coral beads throughout their married life in order to bring peace and harmony into the marriage.
This stone is also said to avert accidents, discord and warfare. It is believed that wearing a coral can help in improving financial health and reducing debt.
Composition of Coral Gemstone
The basic composition of this gem is calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the form of fibrous calcite accompanied by around 3 percent magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), organic matter and traces of iron. It is a semi-translucent to opaque material. The specific gravity is 2.65 and refractive index ranges between 1.486 and 1.658. It`s hardness on the Mohs scale is 3.5 to 4.
Physical Properties of Gem Coral
There are different types of corals that provide corals of different hues. Gem coral occurs in white, pink, orange, red, blue, violet, gold and black. The black and golden coral types differ from the white to red in that they are not calcium carbonate, but rather a horny substance. But the ones that are mainly used in jewelry are red corals, pink corals and white corals.
Corals from Japan are said to have the ‘ox-blood’ red color. This specific color of the coral is valued highly and has a relatively higher demand in the gemstone market for jewelry like rings, earrings and necklaces. The pink to orange-pink variety are not found to possess a uniform color and therefore are not as popular as the red one. However, if the orange or orange-pink color is uniform, then pink coral jewelry, like a made from these stones has a fair amount of demand in the market.
The blue coral is found in shades that range from bright blue to grey blue. The black coral, sometimes, has brownish-yellow streaks on it.
Corals are usually cut into spherical and barrel shaped beads and cabochons. It is also carved into figures and statues. Thin branches of coral are usually polished, pierced and used unaltered in jewelry.
Coral roses (roses carved into corals) are very popular and are often used in gold jewelry too. The blue colour is not used in jewelry as often as the red since it does not look as good as a red coral. However, it is sometimes used in bead-necklaces. The black coral has a horny structure and its thin tentacles-like branches are used (just as they are naturally formed), in multi strand necklaces and bracelets.
They are not found in very large sizes. Sizes of up to 10cts are quite common, though.
It is mainly opaque and may have some surface markings that are clearly seen. Some of the most common surface markings on a coral are the wood grain effect, groove pits and striations.
Price, Cost and Buying of Corals
Other than carat, one of the key dr
West 71st Street Historic District
Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States
This small, nearly block-long historic district achieves its special quality from a number of factors.
(1) It is a secluded enclave on the Upper West Side, set apart from the pattern of through-streets by its unique development history. The street has always been a cul-de-sac since railroad tracks, shielded by a wall, occupy the land immediately to the west.
(2) The district was largely developed over the course of three years (1893-96) with 33 rowhouses, built in six groups designed by four architectural firms, all in variations of the Renaissance Revival style. Each group was designed as a harmonious unit, but individual houses vary in their details. Since four of the groups were designed by two architectural firms, even further unity is created. Within each group, the houses are paired, or a larger rhythm is created through the window placement and configuration, use of bowed and flat facades, and variations in stoops and porticoes.
A slightly later town house from 1903-04 stands at No. 305 on the north side of the street. This is compatible with the rows in style, form, and details. The six-story brick apartment building at No. 319-325 was built in 1924 on a lot that was still vacant prior to construction.
(3) The historic district is given further distinction by the use of harmonious facade materials (brownstone on the south side, brick, stone and terra cotta on the north side), classically-inspired details, uniform cornice heights, and the use of such elements as stoops, bows, and oriels which create a sense of depth on the facades.
(4) Alterations to the exteriors of the houses have been minimal. Thus the historic character of the district is reinforced, and the sense of place even further enhanced.
Although its history can be traced as far back as the seventeenth century, the Upper West Side, including the section of West 71st Street included in the West 71st Street Historic District, remained largely undeveloped until the 1880s. Prior to its urbanization the area was known as Bloomingdale (or "Bloemendael" by the early Dutch settlers) in recollection of a flower-growing region of Holland.
In the early eighteenth century, Bloomingdale Road was opened through the area, following the course of an old Indian trail, and provided the main link to the city at the southern tip of Manhattan Island. Gradually, some wealthy New Yorkers established country seats in the hinterlands around the Bloomingdale Road. While the area remained rural, by the early nineteenth century four small villages had developed in Bloomingdale, including Harsenville, a hamlet centered around the present West 70th Street and Broadway.
The Upper West Side was included in the Randel Survey (Commissioners' Map) of 1811 which planned a uniform grid of broad avenues and narrow cross streets to be imposed upon the rolling hills of Manhattan. Many years elapsed, however, before most streets in rural Bloomingdale were actually laid out. During this time New York City was rapidly growing northward, but development was largely concentrated on the East Side, following the march uptown of New York's wealthy citizens and the city's transit lines. The creation of Central Park (a designated New York City Scenic landmark), begun in 1857, spurred growth in areas around the Park's perimeter, setting off the first wave of real estate speculation on the Upper West Side (in this case, limited to Central Park West).
Several civic improvements also contributed to the eventual development of the Upper West Side. In 1864 the Eighth Avenue horse car line was extended to 84th Street. Previously the only transit facility was a stage line along Bloomingdale Road. The Commissioners of Central Park were authorized to complete the laying out of streets west of Central Park in 1865. Bloomingdale Road (renamed the Boulevard and later Broadway) was widened in 1868-71 and received central, planted malls from 59th to 155th Streets. The biggest boost to development of the area west of Broadway was the creation, between 1876 and 1900, of Riverside Park and Drive north of 72nd Street, near the Hudson River (a designated New York City Scenic landmark). Construction in the area was further stimulated by the completion of the Ninth Avenue Elevated Railroad in 1879.
A wave of real estate speculation following the Civil War was followed by the financial Panic of 1873, which led to a period of stagnation in the building trades. This, along with high real estate prices and delays in civic improvements, again slewed development of the Upper West Side. Further delays were caused by a lack of agreement among developers as to the type of buildings to be constructed here. Although Central Park West and Riverside Drive were envisioned as residential avenues for the wealthy, on a par with Fifth Avenue, there was no consensus about the future character of the rest of the
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