AVERAGE COST OF CLEANING SERVICE : OF CLEANING SERVICE

28 listopad 2011


Average Cost Of Cleaning Service : How To Clean A Cowboy Hat.



Average Cost Of Cleaning Service





average cost of cleaning service






    average cost
  • In economics, average cost or unit cost is equal to total cost divided by the number of goods produced (the output quantity, Q). It is also equal to the sum of average variable costs (total variable costs divided by Q) plus average fixed costs (total fixed costs divided by Q).

  • total cost for all units bought (or produced) divided by the number of units

  • Under the average cost method, it is assumed that the cost of inventory is based on the average cost of the goods available for sale during the period.





    cleaning
  • the act of making something clean; "he gave his shoes a good cleaning"

  • Make (something or someone) free of dirt, marks, or mess, esp. by washing, wiping, or brushing

  • Remove the innards of (fish or poultry) prior to cooking

  • (clean) free from dirt or impurities; or having clean habits; "children with clean shining faces"; "clean white shirts"; "clean dishes"; "a spotlessly clean house"; "cats are clean animals"

  • make clean by removing dirt, filth, or unwanted substances from; "Clean the stove!"; "The dentist cleaned my teeth"





    service
  • work done by one person or group that benefits another; "budget separately for goods and services"

  • The action of helping or doing work for someone

  • Assistance or advice given to customers during and after the sale of goods

  • An act of assistance

  • be used by; as of a utility; "The sewage plant served the neighboring communities"; "The garage served to shelter his horses"

  • an act of help or assistance; "he did them a service"











average cost of cleaning service - Identifying externalities




Identifying externalities in UK manufacturing using direct estimation of an average cost function [An article from: Economics Letters]


Identifying externalities in UK manufacturing using direct estimation of an average cost function [An article from: Economics Letters]



This digital document is a journal article from Economics Letters, published by Elsevier in 2006. The article is delivered in HTML format and is available in your Amazon.com Media Library immediately after purchase. You can view it with any web browser.

Description:
We estimate a translog cost function for UK manufacturing storing the time dummy coefficients to estimate external effects. Such effects are found to stem not only from aggregate activity but also from activity in mechanical engineering and from equipment investment.










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Dhadimagu Kulhi, This is safe Fresh water too, We dont pay a penny for this Natural Resource,




Dhadimagu Kulhi, This is safe Fresh water too, We dont pay a penny for this Natural Resource,





Country Water Action: Maldives
Recovering the Full Cost of Delivering Clean and Safe Water
April 2006


The people of Mal no longer drink brackish water. They have safe, desalinated water and they've agreed to pay a lot of money for it. The Mal story offers an example of a successful private-public partnership and the implementation of very high tariffs.

Desalinated water is worth Mal residents' money
Fighting water scarcity with the right partners
Mal Water and Sewerage Company: desalinating water
Understanding Mal's success
What's ahead
Related link
DESALINATED WATER IS WORTH MALE' RESIDENTS' MONEY
Faced with the prospect of no freshwater source, the people of Mal, Maldives knew that the solution would come with a price. The question was: are they willing to pay it?

In 1995, Mal residents agreed to pay an average of US$ 5.00 per cubic meter (m3) of water. This high tariff, the highest in Asia, was to be used to support the operation of seawater desalination plants that provide 24-hour access to drinking water. In 2000, the tariff rate even increased to US$ 6.40/ m3 but was later reduced to $5.62 in 2005.

Contrary to common expectations, this did not stop consumers from using the water. From a customer base of 6,500 customers in 1996, using 395,500 m3 of water, the numbers surged to almost 17,000 customers using just under 2 million cubic meter of water in 2005.

The increase in desalinated water use indicates people's confidence in desalinated water than water from traditional water sources: groundwater and rainwater. Beyond that, this indicates that people— without alternative viable options —would be willing to pay for water that they know to be safe, clean and worthy of its price.

Top

FIGHTING WATER SCARCITY WITH THE RIGHT PARTNERS

Water is a very scarce resource in the Maldives. Groundwater and rainwater are the major water resources.

In the period leading to the 90's, the underground aquifer had been irreparably damaged by extensive use and pollution. The result was salty water not fit for human consumption. No regulations and standards were issued on groundwater use, and the build up of saline groundwater is evidence of its misuse.

Rainwater, on the other hand, is not disinfected and very few people boil it. There have been incidents when rainwater was tested positive for bacteria.

Aside from these geophysical limitations, people perceive water as a free good.

The impending water crisis prompted a Joint Venture Agreement between the government and NTR Holding/HOH Water Technology of Denmark, creating the Mal Water and Sewerage Company Pvt. Ltd. (MWSC) in 1995.

NTR/HOH, with contributions from the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA) and the Industrialization Fund for Developing Countries (IFU), took on full responsibility of providing reliable water and sanitation services, including the desalination plant and distribution system for 5 years. This autonomy enabled smooth operations in all work phases and established the business's financial viability among private investors and the local government. The government, in turn, granted NTR/HOH monopoly of all public water supply and sewerage services for a 20-year period.

Top

MAL WATER AND SEWERAGE COMPANY: DESALINATING WATER
The MWSC produces desalinated safe drinking water and distributes it to 100% of the urban population (104,400 people) in the capital island everyday. It has also expanded its operations to nearby islands of Hulhumale and Villingili.

Upon its inception, MWSC established water production facilities and a distribution system to service the whole island of Mal. SeaWater Reverse Osmosis equipment is used in the water desalination plants to produce 3,500 cbm of safe drinking water a day (This has now increased to 7,000 cmb/day). A new water supply network consisting of more than 10,000 piped desalinated water connections distributes fresh water to each customer hooked up to the network by a water meter.

MWSC is also responsible for wastewater systems, to which all households in Mal are now connected. The Maldives Water and Sanitation Authority (MWSA), which was formally responsible for the water and sanitation sector, was converted into a Regulatory Body and performs water regulation functions for MWSC to protect consumer interests and the environment. The Regulatory Body was previously lodged under the Ministry of Health but is now under the Ministry of Environment, Energy and Water.

Top

UNDERSTANDING MAL'S SUCCESS
After the public-private partnership between the Mal government and NTR/HOH, all customers had 24/7 access to clean and safe water. MWSC reached break-even point in April 1997 and by June 1999 had recovered all losses from the starting period.

The customer base has also increased --- 16,888 for Male', 381 for Hulhumale, and 852 for Villingili.

The 3-tiered water tariff also provided a lower tariff for subsistence living needs, and rates are higher as consumption increases. The cross subsidy help











NPS Approves Stock Use Plan for Grand Canyon North Rim




NPS Approves Stock Use Plan for Grand Canyon North Rim





North Rim Grand Canyon Trail Ride (NPS Photo)

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE APPROVES STOCK USE PLAN FOR GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK...

The National Park Service (NPS) approved a stock use plan January 5, 2011, that allows commercial mule rides to continue at historically high levels in Grand Canyon National Park, but limits rides on some inner canyon trails that have been damaged by mule use. Private stock use remains unchanged from current use levels.

“Mule rides have always been an important part of the visitor experience at Grand Canyon,” said Acting Superintendent Palma Wilson. “Our challenge with this plan was to balance that use with the protection of historic trails and to reduce the high cost of maintaining those trails. We believe this plan strikes such a balance.”

The stock use plan was formally adopted by the NPS with the signing of a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) by Intermountain Regional Director John Wessels. The plan adopted by the NPS was among five alternatives analyzed in an Environmental Assessment issued by Grand Canyon National Park for public review and comment in May 2010. The purpose of the EA was to examine environmental impacts associated with commercial, private and administrative stock use – guided by the following objectives:

Provide opportunities for mule and stock use within Grand Canyon National Park to as large a cross section of visitors as practicable.
Establish appropriate levels and types of stock use (i.e. number of stock per day, group size) on park trails that will allow for improved maintenance and reduced resource impacts and costs associated with trail maintenance.
Through improved maintenance and operations, reduce conflicts between stock users and hikers on park trails.
Identify optimal stock facility locations, including associated infrastructure size and locations for improving health, safety and overall visitor experience.

With the signing of the FONSI, the NPS has determined that the preferred alternative (“Alternative B” in the EA) will not significantly affect the human environment or the natural and cultural resources of the park, nor will it violate any environmental protection law.

The stock use plan allows a potential 20 percent increase in commercial mule rides over the present yearly average on South Rim trails, and a potential 13 percent increase over the present annual average on North Rim trails. For South Rim operations, which have averaged 8,315 commercial mule rides a year for the past eight years; the new limit is up to 10,000 rides per year. On the North Rim, with an average of 7,072 commercial rides annually now, up to 8,000 commercial rides a year will be allowed.

The stock use plan will help Grand Canyon address the impact of heavy, continuous use and limited trail maintenance funds on the park’s 42 miles of corridor trails – the three main routes into the inner canyon.

To aid repair and improvements, the stock plan decreases rides on the Bright Angel and South Kaibab Trails and designates an above-the-rim ride. On the Bright Angel Trail rides will be reduced from 40 rides per day (20 rides to Plateau Point and 20 to Phantom Ranch) to 10 rides to Phantom Ranch per day. These 10 rides will return on the South Kaibab Trail, once reconstruction of the trail is complete. The Plateau Point ride will be replaced by the above-the-rim ride, which offers greater flexibility and more opportunities for visitors.

The plan limits trips to Supai Tunnel on the North Kaibab Trail to 280 rides per week with a daily maximum not to exceed 48 riders a day, a number that has been exceeded less than a dozen times in recent years. The plan also eliminates the Roaring Springs ride. The Roaring Springs section of the North Kaibab Trail, a steep and narrow stretch that was expensive to maintain, was temporarily closed to mule traffic in 2009. Within one year of the change, trail degradation and associated maintenance costs declined significantly.

The plan will designate a new above-the-rim ride on the South Rim, as stated above, which will replace a temporary rim ride that was added in 2009 to accommodate visitor needs. Extensive work continues today on the 7-mile South Kaibab Trail, which is expected to accommodate mule trips returning to the rim from Phantom Ranch sometime in 2012 or 2013.

Visitors to Grand Canyon have taken guided mule trips since the early 1900s, before the park was officially established in 1919. Today, an average of 15,400 visitors a year ride mules on commercially guided trips down into the canyon and above the rim. The number of private mule and stock use is unknown because day-use permits are not required, but on average, about 60 private riders a year make overnight trips. In addition, the park uses mules for maintenance and supply trips into the canyon.

Primary elements of the preferred alternative include:

South Rim
Commercial stock use: Up to 10,000 commercial mule rides a year (current average use









average cost of cleaning service








average cost of cleaning service




Special Service : The Best Poems of Robert W. Service






Includes 82 classic poems by the "Bard of the Yukon." Robert William Service was a poet and writer, sometimes referred to as "the Bard of the Yukon". He is best-known for his writings on the Canadian North, including the poems "The Shooting of Dan McGrew", "The Law of the Yukon", and "The Cremation of Sam McGee", all of which are included in this collection of 82 poems.
Contains the poems from the following works:
Songs of a Sourdough,
and
The Spell of the Yukon and Other Verses

Includes 82 classic poems by the "Bard of the Yukon." Robert William Service was a poet and writer, sometimes referred to as "the Bard of the Yukon". He is best-known for his writings on the Canadian North, including the poems "The Shooting of Dan McGrew", "The Law of the Yukon", and "The Cremation of Sam McGee", all of which are included in this collection of 82 poems.
Contains the poems from the following works:
Songs of a Sourdough,
and
The Spell of the Yukon and Other Verses










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