AMERICAN COOKBOOK

srijeda, 09.11.2011.

COOK ISLANDS CLIMATE - ISLANDS CLIMATE


COOK ISLANDS CLIMATE - THE SOLAR COOKING ARCHIVE - CAPTAIN COOK DISCOVERING AUSTRALIA.



Cook Islands Climate





cook islands climate






    cook islands
  • (Cook Island) Cook Island(s) may refer to

  • New Zealand · Niue · Ross Dependency · Tokelau

  • A group of 15 islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean between Tonga and French Polynesia that have the status of a self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand; pop. 18,000; capital, Avarua, on Rarotonga

  • The Cook Islands (Cook Islands Maori: Kuki 'Airani) is a self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand. The fifteen small islands in this South Pacific Ocean country have a total land area of 240 square kilometres (92.





    climate
  • The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period

  • (climatic) of or relating to a climate; "climatic changes"

  • A region with particular prevailing weather conditions

  • the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time; "the dank climate of southern Wales"; "plants from a cold clime travel best in winter"

  • the prevailing psychological state; "the climate of opinion"; "the national mood had changed radically since the last election"

  • The prevailing trend of public opinion or of another aspect of public life











Pacific Island Forum 2011




Pacific Island Forum 2011





Thomas Nides
U.S. Deputy Secretary of State.

The United States Government, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community, and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Programme Announce Climate Adaptation Partnerships - September 8, 2011

September 7, 2011: U.S. Engagement in the Pacific: Fact Sheet

Partnerships Are Part of Larger (USD) $21 Million U.S. Government Climate Assistance Program in the Pacific Small Island Developing States

AUCKLAND, NZ - The United States Government today formally joined forces with the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC) and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Programme (SPREP) to advance climate change adaptation. These partnerships are part of a larger (USD) $21 million “fast start” finance commitment made by the United States for a Pacific Small Island Developing States (PSIDS) climate change program.

Through these partnerships, the United States, SPC and SPREP will strengthen the capacity of the countries and communities in the Pacific Islands to improve food security and water security, and to protect critical ecosystems. The partnerships will also help these countries access information about climate impacts to make more effective and sustainable decisions in the face of climate change. Representatives from the U.S. Department of State and U.S. Agency for International Development were joined by representatives from SPC and SPREP to announce the partnership at a formal signing ceremony on the margins of the Pacific Island Forum and Post-Forum Dialogue.

Rainfall changes and extreme weather events will cause heightened food security challenges for the PSIDS in the coming decades. As a result, the United States and SPC have partnered to strengthen food security among communities in Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. The United States and SPREP will help improve the ability of communities in Kiribati to address the impact of climate change on water resources as well as help Kiribati’s Ministry of Health integrate adaptation into national health planning and policies. The United States and SPREP also will work together to promote healthy ecosystems in the Solomon Islands.

The United States will manage the $21 million program through the U.S. Agency for International Development, which will open an office in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea in the coming months.

Last year, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton announced the $21 million U.S. “fast start” finance assistance for the PSIDS over two years (2010-2011). The PSIDS funding is a part of a larger commitment from the United States to work with developed country partners to provide “fast start” financing from 2010-2012. The “fast start” financing was included in the negotiated packages agreed to at the UN climate talks in Copenhagen and Cancun.

###

Quotes:

Thomas R. Nides, Deputy Secretary of State, U.S. Department of State:
“The United States recognizes that climate change poses a significant threat to the development and security of Pacific islands. We have prioritized efforts to expand U.S. bilateral and multilateral adaptation assistance and are committed to helping Pacific Small Island Developing States adapt to the impacts of climate change.”

Nisha Biswal, Assistant Administrator, U.S. Agency for International Development:
“USAID is committed to the success of these programs. As the implementing U.S. government agency, USAID looks forward to collaborating with the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Program and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community to combat the climate adaptation challenges of the Pacific islands.”

Jimmie Rodgers, Director General, Secretariat of the Pacific Community:
“The impacts of climate change are more pronounced in the Pacific Small Island Developing States. For many of their citizens, climate change touches and impacts their lives on a regular basis. For them it is about how food security can be sustained, how health is protected, how education is enhanced, how safe water supply is safeguarded, how coastal areas are protected, how human settlements are climate proofed and how the impact of high water surges and flooding are reduced. This support from the United States is historic. It represents a new partnership approach of working with regional organisations which will help bring together the many aspects of the climate change support aimed primarily at complementing and further strengthening the capacity of the participating countries to respond effectively to the challenges of climate change.”

David Sheppard, Director, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Programme:
“Climate change poses major challenges for the people and environments of the Pacific. In many cases it is a matter of survival. SPREP, working with SPC and other agencies, is developing and implementing practical approaches to help countries adapt to climate change. This landmark and most welcome support from











Uros Islands - Local Ladies




Uros Islands - Local Ladies





These are a couple of local ladies from the Uros Islands in traditional dress.

From Wikipedia -

The Uros is the name of a group of pre-Incan people who live on 42 self-fashioned floating man-made islets located in Lake Titicaca Puno, Peru. The Uros use the totora plant to make boats (balsas mats) of bundled dried reeds as well as to make the islands themselves.

The Uros islands at 3810 meters above sea level are just 5 Km west from Puno port [2] (20 minutes in a boat ride from Puno). Around 2,000 descendants of the Uros were counted in the 1997 census,[3] although only a few hundred still live on and maintain the islands; most have moved to the mainland. The Uros also bury their dead on the mainland in special cemeteries.

The Uros descend from a millennial town that according to legends are "pukinas" who speak Uro or Pukina and that believe they are the owners of the lake and water. They used to say that they had black blood because they did not feel the cold. Also they call themselves "Lupihaques" (Sons of The Sun). Nowadays they do not speak the Uro language, neither practice their old beliefs but keep some old costumes. [3]

The purpose of the island settlements was originally defensive, and if a threat arose they could be moved. The largest island retains a watchtower almost entirely constructed of reeds.

The Uros traded with the Aymara tribe on the mainland, interbreeding with them and eventually abandoning the Uro language for that of the Aymara. About 500 years ago they lost their original language. When this pre-Incan civilization was conquered by the Incans, they had to pay taxes to them, and often were made slaves.

The islets are made of totora reeds, which grow in the lake. The dense roots that the plants develop and interweave naturally form a natural layer called Khili (about one to two meters thick) that support the islands . They are anchored with ropes attached to sticks driven into the bottom of the lake. The reeds at the bottoms of the islands rot away fairly quickly, so new reeds are added to the top constantly, about every three months; this is what it makes exciting for tourists when walking on the island. [3] This is especially important in the rainy season when the reeds rot a lot faster. The islands last about 30 years.

Much of the Uros' diet and medicine also revolve around these totora reeds. When a reed is pulled, the white bottom is often eaten for iodine. This prevents goiter. This white part of the reed is called the chullo (Aymara [t??u?o]). Like the Andean people of Peru rely on the Coca Leaf for relief from a harsh climate and hunger, the Uros people rely on the Totora reeds in the same way. When in pain, the reed is wrapped around the place in pain to absorb it. They also make a reed flower tea.

The larger islands house about 10 families, while smaller ones, only about 30 meters wide, house only two or three. [2] There are about 2 or 3 children per family currently.

Local residents fish ispi, carachi and catfish. There are 2 types of fish foreign to the lake that were recently introduced. Trout was introduced from Canada in 1940 and the kingfish was introduced from Argentina. They also hunt birds such as seagulls, ducks and flamingos. and graze their cattle on the islets. They also run crafts stalls aimed at the numerous tourists who land on ten of the islands each year. They barter totora reeds on the mainland in Puno to get products they need like quinoa or other foods.

Food is cooked with fires placed on piles of stones. To relieve themselves, tiny 'outhouse' islands are near the main islands. The ground root absorbs the waste.

The Uros do not reject modern technology: some boats have motors, some houses have solar panels to run appliances such as TV, and the main island is home to an Uros-run FM radio station, which plays music for several hours a day.

Early schooling is done on several islands, including a traditional school and a school run by a Christian church. Older children and university students attend school on the mainland, often in nearby Puno.










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