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06.10.2011., četvrtak

FLIGHT TO MADEIRA - TO MADEIRA


Flight to madeira - Web fares flights - Cheep flight to



Flight To Madeira





flight to madeira






    madeira
  • an island in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa; the largest of the Madeira Islands

  • A fortified white wine from the island of Madeira

  • an amber dessert wine from the Madeira Islands

  • a Brazilian river; tributary of the Amazon River





    flight
  • Shoot (wildfowl) in flight

  • shoot a bird in flight

  • (in soccer, cricket, etc.) Deliver (a ball) with well-judged trajectory and pace

  • a formation of aircraft in flight

  • an instance of traveling by air; "flying was still an exciting adventure for him"











flight to madeira - Record Of




Record Of Facts Concerning The Persecutions At Madeira In 1843 And 1846: The Flight Of A Thousand Converts To The West India Islands, And Also, The ... Those Who Arrived Here In The United States


Record Of Facts Concerning The Persecutions At Madeira In 1843 And 1846: The Flight Of A Thousand Converts To The West India Islands, And Also, The ... Those Who Arrived Here In The United States



This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. that were either part of the original artifact, or were introduced by the scanning process. We believe this work is culturally important, and despite the imperfections, have elected to bring it back into print as part of our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide. We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process, and hope you enjoy this valuable book.










89% (15)





Madeira archipelago, i took this pic from the net




Madeira archipelago, i took this pic from the net





It is one of the Autonomous regions of Portugal, with Madeira Island and Porto Santo Island being the only inhabited islands. Madeira is part of the EU as an outermost region of the European Union.

Madeira was discovered by Portuguese sailors some time between 1418 and 1420. The archipelago is considered to be the first discovery of the exploratory period initiated by Henry the Navigator of Portugal. It is a popular year-round resort, noted for its Madeira wine, flowers, and embroidery artisans, as well as its New Year's Eve celebrations that feature a spectacular fireworks show, which is the largest in the world according to the Guinness World Records. Its harbour – Funchal – is important due to its commercial and passenger traffic and for being a major stopover for cruisers en route from Europe to the Caribbean.

In February 2010, Madeira experienced heavy flooding and mudslides after a violent storm, killing people and causing extensive damage.

History
Pre-Portuguese times
Pliny mentions certain Purple Islands, the position of which with reference to the Fortunate Islands, or Canaries, may indicate Madeira islands. Plutarch (Sertorius, 75 AD) referring to the military commander Quintus Sertorius (d. 72 BC), relates that after his return to Cadiz, "he met seamen recently arrived from Atlantic islands, two in number, divided from one another only by a narrow channel and distant from the coast of Africa 10,000 furlongs. They are called Isles of the Blest." The estimated distance from Africa, and the closeness of the two islands, seem to indicate Madeira and Porto Santo.

There is a romantic tale about two lovers, Robert Machim and Anna d'Arfet in time of the King Edward III of England, who, fleeing from England to France in 1346, were driven off their course by a violent storm, and cast onto the coast of Madeira at the place subsequently named Machico, in memory of one of them. On the evidence of a portolan dated 1351, preserved at Florence, Italy, it would appear that Madeira had been discovered long before that date by Portuguese vessels under Genoese captains.

It is certain that the discovery of Madeira predates the Portuguese settlement, as it appears on maps as early as 1339.

Portuguese discovery
In 1419 two captains of Prince Henry the Navigator – Joao Goncalves Zarco and Tristao Vaz Teixeira – were driven by a storm to an island they named Porto Santo. They gave this name (meaning Holy Harbour) in gratitude for their rescue from the shipwreck. The following year, an expedition was sent to populate the island, in which the two captains, together with captain Bartolomeu Perestrello, took possession of the islands on behalf of the Portuguese crown.

The islands started to be settled circa 1420 or 1425. In 23 September 1433, the name Ilha da Madeira (Madeira Island or "wood island") appears on a map, its first mention in a document.

The three captain-majors had led, in the first trip, their respective families, a small group of people of the minor nobility, people of modest conditions and some old prisoners of the kingdom. To gain the minimum conditions for the development of agriculture, they had to rough-hew a part of the dense forest of laurisilva and to construct a large number of canals (levadas), since in some parts of the island, there was excess water, while in other parts water was scarce. In the earliest times, fish constituted about half of the settlers' diet, together with vegetables and fruit. The first local agricultural activity with some success was the raising of wheat. Initially, the colonists produced wheat for their own sustenance, but later began to export wheat to Portugal.

The discoveries of Porto Santo and Madeira were first described by Gomes Eanes de Zurara in Chronica da Descoberta e Conquista da Guine. (Eng. version by Edgar Prestage in 2 vols. issued by the Hakluyt Society, London, 1896-1899: The Chronicle of Discovery and Conquest of Guinea.) Arkan Simaan relates these discoveries in French in his novel based on Azurara's Chronicle: L’Ecuyer d’Henri le Navigateur, published by Editions l’Harmattan, Paris.

Portuguese Madeira
However, in time grain production began to fall. To get past the ensuing crisis, Henry decided to order the planting of sugarcane – to produce the "sweet salt" rare in Europe and, therefore, considered a spice – introducing Sicilian beets as the first specialized plant and along with it the technology of its agriculture.

Expansion of sugar plantations in Madeira started in 1455, using advisers from Sicily and (largely) Genoese capital for the mills, and developed until the 17th century. The accessibility of Madeira attracted Genoese and Flemish traders keen to bypass Venetian monopolies. "By 1480 Antwerp had some seventy ships engaged in the Madeira sugar trade, with the refining and distribution concentrated in Antwerp. By the 1490s Madeira had overtaken Cyprus as a producer of sugar."
Sugarcane production











Funchal, Madeira




Funchal, Madeira





The City of Funchal is the capital of the Autonomous Region of Madeira. Through August 2008, Funchal will celebrate 500 years. During the vast dominions of the Portuguese discoveries Funchal was the first to be granted the status of a City by the Portuguese crown. Its elevation attended to the development of its flourishing sugar culture. Yet another purpose was to transform Funchal into the main centre of a huge Diocese that was to control spiritually the vast territories acquired by the Portuguese, members of the Order of Christ, at the shores of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

A Brief History

The Madeiran Archipelago was discovered in 1419. Its settlement was owed to the discoveries, through the 15th century. It was the first experiment of its kind exploring shores never before inhabited. Trying out with agriculture, cultivating wheat, and later on the sugar cane, brought immediate wealth, and these cultures were thus used as model in the Canaries, the Azores, Cape Verde, and Brazil when colonized.

Late in the 15th century Madeira became, due to its exploration of sugar, a centre for international business. Merchants and adventurers of different European origins were en route to Madeira. The production and distribution of the sugar was the base for the international merchant capitalism of its period. The harbor of Funchal was headed for by German, Italian and Flemish merchants and other economic agents, as it was the case with Christopher Columbus, then a sugar negotiator. The future admiral of the Indies lived in Funchal for a time. He married Filipa Moniz, the daughter of Bartolomeu Perestrelo, who was the captain of Porto Santo.

The significance of the port of Funchal was vital enough so that D. Manuel was giving especial attention to it, even before being crowned king of Portugal. Hence in 1486 still only Duke of Beja, he gave orders to found a central administrative nucleolus between Santa Maria Maior and Santa Catarina and Sao Pedro, the residency of Joao Goncalves Zarco and of his sons and daughters. He ceded his site of Duke as to build there a “Town Hall” and a big Church, which was shortly after to become the Cathedral and the main centre for the future Diocese. His mother, D. Beatriz had already established in 1477 insular customs, being one in Funchal the other in Machico, close to the sea. She had it that an own custom-house ought to be build.

Madeira became an important reference to sailors who navigated towards the North Atlantic. Due to the winds every European armada that sailed for the Atlantic South and the Indian Ocean had to pass through the Madeiran seas. This was even the case with the English and the armadas from Holland sailing towards Central America.

Throughout the 16th and the 17th century Madeira Island affirmed through the port of Funchal its strategic position in the North Atlantic commerce. But due to a new product: the Madeira Wine its position was even strengthened. The wine culture was introduced by the first settlers of Madeira. Already in 1455 the navigator Luis de Cadamosto referred to Madeira’s excellent wine grapes and that their wine was successfully being exported. In the middle of the next century none less than William Shakespeare himself refers to Madeira’s wine in a few of his plays. The playwright, for instance, lets the duke of Clarence, Edward IV’s brother, choose to die in a barrel of malmsey.

Throughout the next centuries the Madeira Wine is said to have therapeutic qualities. By finding out that its taste got even better when transported on sea during long maritime voyages, big armadas that were on their way to the Indies, passed through Madeira to load the wine on board.


Madeira thus became an important market place, while it became as well a place of repose. The so called Madeira quintas, manor houses with big gardens, were built. In the gardens you could find indigenous and imported plants. Of theses quintas large descriptions were made in travel books. For instance admiral James Cook, was accompanied by various specialists, during the 18th century; once on board of the Endeavour in 1768, and then on board of the Resolution in 1772. Authors of the travel books of that period described in detail the flora and fauna they found on the Island.

Even the British admiralty recognized the strategic importance of the port of Funchal in the 17th century, preparing constantly geo-hydrographics most of them in printed form.

During the political instability in Europe, due to the Napoleonic wars in 1801, an important armada composed of more then 100 ships landed on Madeira. The armada was on its way to the Indies, but had to anchor at Funchal’s bay. Under General Henry Clinton a military contingent stayed at Madeira as long as the negotiations were lasting in the continent.

Another occupation happened when the French were invading the Iberian Peninsula in 1807. The Portuguese court could flee to Brazil and was thus not depended on the mercy of the









flight to madeira








flight to madeira




Madeira Sights 2011: a travel guide to the top 20 attractions in Madeira Island, Portugal (Mobi Sights)






This illustrated Travel Guide is a part of the Mobi Sights series, our concise guides that only feature the most essential information on city attractions. This guide is designed for optimal navigation on eReaders, smartphones, and other mobile electronic devices. Inside you will find a locator map and a list of top attractions linked to individual articles.

Please search for "Travel Portugal" part of the Mobi Travel series, if you are interested in the complete travel guide that includes more maps and attractions with additional articles on history, cultural venues, transportation, districts, dining, accommodations, units conversion, and a phrasebook.

NEW FEATURE: The attraction articles now include links to Google Maps. On a dedicated electronic reader with a slow connection and a primitive browser, Google Maps will display the attraction on the map along with metro stations, roads, and nearby attractions. On an internet-enabled device such as the iPhone and the iPad, Google Maps will even show you the route from your current location to the attraction you want to go to.

With this travel guide you can turn some eReaders into an audio guides. For example, on the Kindle, just open an article and click Shift+SYM to activate text-to-speech. Put the speaker on the back of the Kindle against your ear and enjoy your virtual travel companion. Press Spacebar to pause/resume text-to-speech.

All travel guides in the Mobi Sights series are only $0.99. Search for any title: enter mobi (short for MobileReference) and a keyword; for example: mobi Paris.

This illustrated Travel Guide is a part of the Mobi Sights series, our concise guides that only feature the most essential information on city attractions. This guide is designed for optimal navigation on eReaders, smartphones, and other mobile electronic devices. Inside you will find a locator map and a list of top attractions linked to individual articles.

Please search for "Travel Portugal" part of the Mobi Travel series, if you are interested in the complete travel guide that includes more maps and attractions with additional articles on history, cultural venues, transportation, districts, dining, accommodations, units conversion, and a phrasebook.

NEW FEATURE: The attraction articles now include links to Google Maps. On a dedicated electronic reader with a slow connection and a primitive browser, Google Maps will display the attraction on the map along with metro stations, roads, and nearby attractions. On an internet-enabled device such as the iPhone and the iPad, Google Maps will even show you the route from your current location to the attraction you want to go to.

With this travel guide you can turn some eReaders into an audio guides. For example, on the Kindle, just open an article and click Shift+SYM to activate text-to-speech. Put the speaker on the back of the Kindle against your ear and enjoy your virtual travel companion. Press Spacebar to pause/resume text-to-speech.

All travel guides in the Mobi Sights series are only $0.99. Search for any title: enter mobi (short for MobileReference) and a keyword; for example: mobi Paris.










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